American Pageant Chapter 13

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1

Andrew Jackson

The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.

2

John C. Calhoun

The writer of The South Carolina Exposition, vice president under both John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson; he wrote Exposition and Protest and led the nullification fight in 1832 and 1833. As senator and vice president, he was the leading voice for southern states' rights from 1828 to 1850.

3

Henry Clay

Influential Speaker of the House who greatly influenced the decision in the election of 1824 Man who composed the Compromise Tariff of 1830

4

Martin Van Buren

Jackson's successor, Served as secretary of state during Andrew Jackson's first term, vice president during Jackson's second term, and won the presidency in 1836

5

William Crawford

Originally from Georgia, Crawford ran in the 1824 election representing the south. He was forced to drop out of the race due to a stroke.

6

John Quincy Adams

Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.

7

Daniel Webster

Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.

8

Nicholas Biddle

President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.

9

Osceola

Seminole leader who resisted the removal of his people from Florida in the 1830s. He died under suspicious circumstances after being tricked into surrendering (1837).

10

Stephen Austin

Man chosen to receive Texas, Original settler of Texas, granted land from Mexico on condition of no slaves, convert to Roman Catholic, and learn Spanish,, Austin, Texas was named after him; he was the man the brought the first Americans into Texas because he was granted permission by the Mexicans. Leader of Texas settlers in 1820

11

William Harrison

was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.

12

Sam Houston

Ex-governor of Tennessee, led the Texas Rebellion, United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)

13

John Tyler

William H. Harrison's vice president, elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died (1790-1862)

14

Santa Anna

Mexican dictator during the Texas Rebellion, Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)

15

Black Hawk

Indian chief who led tribes to resist eviction, Sauk leader who in 1832 led Fox and Sauk warriors against the United States (1767-1838)

16

William Travis

Commander of the defenders of the Alamo who was only 26 years old. He was determined to hold his position and managed to send messages through Mexican lines asking for assistance, but none came. He was killed in the Battle of the Alamo, and he was important because his death made Texas fight harder for their independence.

17

Annexation

The adding of a region to the territory of an existing political unit.

18

antislavery

was a wide spread idea (with most of its supporters being in the New England areas) in the 1800's. the North readily opposed the idea of slavery, because it was abusive and their economy didn't rely on it. But even in the South, in the 1820's, there were numerous antislavery societies. These societies were actually more numerous south of Mason and Dixon's line.

19

favorite son

candidate that receives the backing of his home state rather than of the national party

20

common man

a political leader who worked his way up to the top from the bottom. Andrew Jackson was the model common man. He had been orphaned, so he fought in the Revolutionary War at age thirteen. In the War of 1812, he became a hero and launched his political career soon after. He was like the rest of the country, and that's why they liked him so much. The common man began to take over during the Jacksonian Democracy.

21

nullification

the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress

22

spoils system

the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power

23

rotation in office

Jackson's system of periodically replacing officeholders to allow ordinary citizens to play a more prominent role in government

24

Democratic-Republicans

Political party in the Quincy Adams's presidency that supported the rights of the individual, Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank

25

Anti-Masonists

Third party in the race between Jackson and Quincy Adams

26

Revolution of 1828

Jackson's election showed shift of political power to "the common man" (1828), when the government changed hands from quincy adams to jackson

27

Twelfth Amendment

Beginning in 1804, electors would vote separately for President and Vice President

28

King Mob

Nickname for all the new participants in government that came with Jackson's presidency. This nickname was negative and proposed that Jackson believed in too much democracy, perhaps leading to anarchy

29

corrupt bargain

In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.

30

Tariff of Abominations

1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.

31

South Carolina Exposition

written by John C. Calhoun denouncing the 1828 Tariff as unconstitutional and that the states should declare it null and void

32

Tariff of 1832

the tariff that was supposed to abolish the evils of the "Tariff of Abominations" and quiet southern criticism

33

Specie Circular

Order that all new land be bought with metallic money, Issued by Jackson - attempt to stop states from speculating land with money they printed that was not backed by anything - required land speculation in speci; Provided that in payment for public lands, the government would accept only gold or silver

34

slavocracy

Term the North used to describe the Slaveholding South and its "schemes" to gain more slave-land.

35

Tariff of 1833

Tariff proposed to settle the dispute between nullies and Jackson, It was a new tariff proposed by Henry Clay and John Calhoun that gradually lowered the tariff to the level of the tariff of 1816 This compromise avoided civil war and prolonged the union for another 30 years.

36

Trail of Tears

The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.

37

panic of 1837

Ecnomic downturn caused by loose lending practices of stat banks' and overspeculation. Martin Van Buren spent most of his time in office attempting to stablize and lessen the economic situation

38

Force Bill

Bill that says Congress is authorized to use the military against belligerent states. Is nullified by South Carolina.

39

Seminole Indians

They lived in Florida as runaways from other tribes. They waged a seven years war against the Americans to try and remain in the east instead of being forcibly removed to the west.

40

Divorce Bill

A bill passed by Van Buren in 1837, that divorced the government from banking altogether, and established an independent treasury, so the governemtn could lock its money in vaults in several of the larger cities.

41

Bank of the United States

Hamilton's plan to solve Revolutionary debt, Assumption highly controversial, pushed his plan through Congress, based on loose interpretation of Constitution

42

Lone Star

texas declared independence in 1836 and Houston forced signed treaty with Santa Anna in 1836

43

independent treasury

President Van Buren's plan to keep government funds in its own vaults and do business entirely in hard money rather than keep them in deposits within shaky banks.

44

Democratic party

political party led by Thomas Jefferson; it feared centralized political power, supported states' rights, opposed Hamilton's financial plan, and supported ties with France. It was heavily influenced by a agrarian interests in the southern states.

45

pet banks

State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.

46

Whig party

An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements