American Pageant, Volume 1: American Pageant Chapter 13 Flashcards
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
John C. Calhoun
The writer of The South Carolina Exposition, vice president under both John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson; he wrote Exposition and Protest and led the nullification fight in 1832 and 1833. As senator and vice president, he was the leading voice for southern states' rights from 1828 to 1850.
Influential Speaker of the House who greatly influenced the decision in the election of 1824 Man who composed the Compromise Tariff of 1830
Martin Van Buren
Jackson's successor, Served as secretary of state during Andrew Jackson's first term, vice president during Jackson's second term, and won the presidency in 1836
Originally from Georgia, Crawford ran in the 1824 election representing the south. He was forced to drop out of the race due to a stroke.
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
Seminole leader who resisted the removal of his people from Florida in the 1830s. He died under suspicious circumstances after being tricked into surrendering (1837).
Man chosen to receive Texas, Original settler of Texas, granted land from Mexico on condition of no slaves, convert to Roman Catholic, and learn Spanish,, Austin, Texas was named after him; he was the man the brought the first Americans into Texas because he was granted permission by the Mexicans. Leader of Texas settlers in 1820
was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
Ex-governor of Tennessee, led the Texas Rebellion, United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)
William H. Harrison's vice president, elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died (1790-1862)
Mexican dictator during the Texas Rebellion, Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)
Indian chief who led tribes to resist eviction, Sauk leader who in 1832 led Fox and Sauk warriors against the United States (1767-1838)
Commander of the defenders of the Alamo who was only 26 years old. He was determined to hold his position and managed to send messages through Mexican lines asking for assistance, but none came. He was killed in the Battle of the Alamo, and he was important because his death made Texas fight harder for their independence.
The adding of a region to the territory of an existing political unit.
was a wide spread idea (with most of its supporters being in the New England areas) in the 1800's. the North readily opposed the idea of slavery, because it was abusive and their economy didn't rely on it. But even in the South, in the 1820's, there were numerous antislavery societies. These societies were actually more numerous south of Mason and Dixon's line.
candidate that receives the backing of his home state rather than of the national party
a political leader who worked his way up to the top from the bottom. Andrew Jackson was the model common man. He had been orphaned, so he fought in the Revolutionary War at age thirteen. In the War of 1812, he became a hero and launched his political career soon after. He was like the rest of the country, and that's why they liked him so much. The common man began to take over during the Jacksonian Democracy.
the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
rotation in office
Jackson's system of periodically replacing officeholders to allow ordinary citizens to play a more prominent role in government
Political party in the Quincy Adams's presidency that supported the rights of the individual, Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
Third party in the race between Jackson and Quincy Adams
Revolution of 1828
Jackson's election showed shift of political power to "the common man" (1828), when the government changed hands from quincy adams to jackson
Beginning in 1804, electors would vote separately for President and Vice President
Nickname for all the new participants in government that came with Jackson's presidency. This nickname was negative and proposed that Jackson believed in too much democracy, perhaps leading to anarchy
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
South Carolina Exposition
written by John C. Calhoun denouncing the 1828 Tariff as unconstitutional and that the states should declare it null and void
Tariff of 1832
the tariff that was supposed to abolish the evils of the "Tariff of Abominations" and quiet southern criticism
Order that all new land be bought with metallic money, Issued by Jackson - attempt to stop states from speculating land with money they printed that was not backed by anything - required land speculation in speci; Provided that in payment for public lands, the government would accept only gold or silver
Term the North used to describe the Slaveholding South and its "schemes" to gain more slave-land.
Tariff of 1833
Tariff proposed to settle the dispute between nullies and Jackson, It was a new tariff proposed by Henry Clay and John Calhoun that gradually lowered the tariff to the level of the tariff of 1816 This compromise avoided civil war and prolonged the union for another 30 years.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
panic of 1837
Ecnomic downturn caused by loose lending practices of stat banks' and overspeculation. Martin Van Buren spent most of his time in office attempting to stablize and lessen the economic situation
Bill that says Congress is authorized to use the military against belligerent states. Is nullified by South Carolina.
They lived in Florida as runaways from other tribes. They waged a seven years war against the Americans to try and remain in the east instead of being forcibly removed to the west.
A bill passed by Van Buren in 1837, that divorced the government from banking altogether, and established an independent treasury, so the governemtn could lock its money in vaults in several of the larger cities.
Bank of the United States
Hamilton's plan to solve Revolutionary debt, Assumption highly controversial, pushed his plan through Congress, based on loose interpretation of Constitution
texas declared independence in 1836 and Houston forced signed treaty with Santa Anna in 1836
President Van Buren's plan to keep government funds in its own vaults and do business entirely in hard money rather than keep them in deposits within shaky banks.
political party led by Thomas Jefferson; it feared centralized political power, supported states' rights, opposed Hamilton's financial plan, and supported ties with France. It was heavily influenced by a agrarian interests in the southern states.
State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements