American Pageant Chapters 34-35

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American Pageant, Volume 1
Chapters 34, 35
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1

London Economic Conference

A conference of 60 nations to organize a coordinated international attack on the global depression, especially by stabilizing the values of various nation's currencies.

2

Cordell Hull

Roosevelt's secretary of state he sent to the London conference. Designed trade agreements with Latin America.

3

Tydings Mcduffie Act

Provided for the independence of the Philippines after a twelve year period of economic and political tutelage.

4

Good Neighbor Policy

Roosevelt's policy of friendly relations with Latin America

5

Seventh Pan American Conference

The 1933 conference in Montevideo Uruguay in which the United States formally endorsed noninterventionism.

6

Fulgencio Batista

The millitary strongmen who came to power in Cuba in 1934, overthrowing the Platt Amendment bound government.

7

Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act

1934 act designed to lift American export trade from the dollar doldrums, aimed at both relief and recovery.

8

Totalitarianism

The philosophy in which loyalty to the state means everything

9

Joseph Stalin

Soviet Dictator

10

Benito Mussolini

Italian Dictator

11

Tripartite Pact

1935 agreement with Germany and Italy and Japan

12

Johnson Debt Default Act

Prevented Debtor nations from borrowing from the United States,

13

Neutrality Acts

The 1935, 1936, and 1937 laws which stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would go into affect.

14

General Francisco Franco

Led rebels who sought to overthrow the left leaning Republican government of Spain during the Spanish civil war. 1936-1939

15

Quarantine Speech

Roosevelt called for quarantining Italy and Japan, possibly through economic embargoes.

16

Hitler-Stalin Pact

Gave Hitler a green light to make war on western democracies.

17

Neutrality Act of 1939

Provided that European democracies might buy American War materials but only on a "cash and carry basis."

18

Winston Churchill

British Orator who nerved his people to fight off the fearful air bombings of their cities.

19

Manhattan project

Created the nuclear bombs dropped on Japan.

20

FDR's four freedoms

Freedom of Speech Freedom of Worship Freedom from Want Freedom from Fear

21

GI bill of rights

Serviceman's readjustment, prevented unemployment for returning citizens

22

Appeasement

The policy of allowing Hitler to conquer some territories in hopes that he would leave alone others.

23

"cash and carry basis"

European powers could buy American war materials but needed to transport them with their own ships.

24

"phony war"

The months following the collapse of Poland while France and Britain marked time. ended in April 1940 when Hitler overran his weaker neighbors Denmark and Norway.

25

Committee to defend America by aiding the allies

propaganda group which advocated for helping Britain.

26

Charles A Lindbergh

Leader of the America First Committee.

27

America first Committee

Argued that America should focus on defending its own shore rather than helping Britain.

28

Senator Robert A Taft

A likely republican candidate fro 1940 but lost the nomination to Willkie. Was isolationist and opposed even the lend lease act.

29

Thomas E Dewey

A likely republican candidate for 1940 but lost the nomination to Willkie

30

Wendell L Willkie

The Republican candidate in 1940.

31

Lend Lease Act

allowed allied nations to but american war goods on a cash and carry basis

32

France

This nation fell to Germany in 1940

33

Soviet Union

Although it previously signed a neutrality pact, this nation was invaded by Hitler.

34

Atlantic Conference 1941

Winston Churchill met with Roosevelt to discuss common problems. Produced the Atlantic Charter.

35

Atlantic Charter

Agreement between Roosevelt and Churchill that stipulated there would be no territorial changes contrary to the wishes of inhabitants, affirmed the right of self determination, and a new league of nations.

36

Black Sunday

December 7, 1941 the day when Japan bombed Pearl Harbor Hawaii.

37

Nazi Party

the political party founded in Germany in 1919 and brought to power by Hitler in 1933

38

Rome-Berlin Axis

1936; close cooperation between Italy and Germany, and soon Japan joined; resulted from Hitler; who had supported Ethiopia and Italy, he overcame Mussolini's lingering doubts about the Nazis.

39

Washington Naval Conference

1921 - president harding invited delegates from Europe and Japan, and they agreed to limit production of war ships, to not attack each other's possessions, and to respect China's independence

40

Ethiopia 1935

Attacked by Italy (Mussolini), seeking power and glory in Africa

41

Spanish Civil War

In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.

42

arms embargo

not selling weapons to a country

43

Quarantine Speech (1937)

FDR encouraged democracies to quarantine their opponents (economic embargoes); criticized by isolationists

44

Sudetenland (1938)

appeasement; Hitler promised that his last territorial demand was the Sudeten territory from Czechoslovakia

45

September 1, 1939

Germany invades Poland

46

Dunkirk

A city in northern France on the North Sea where in World War II (1940) 330,000 Allied troops had to be evacuated from the beaches at Dunkirk in a desperate retreat under enemy fire.

47

Conscription Law

September 6, 1940, under this measure, America's first peacetime DRAFT was initiated-provision was made for training 1.2 million troops and 800,000 reserves each year.

48

Battle of Britain (1940)

series of air strikes on Britain by Germany from August to November of 1940 in an attempt to gain air supremacy. Hitler fails to take Britain; British RAF decimate Nazi pilots. Called the Blitz

49

Destroyers for Bases

Roosevelt's compromise for helping Britain as he could not sell Britain US destroyers without defying the Neutrality Act; Britain received 50 old but still serviceable US destroyers in exchange for giving the US the right to build military bases on British Islands in the Caribbean.

50

Pearl Harbor, 1941

The Japanese wanted to continue their expansion within Asia in the late 1930s and early 40s but the US had placed an extremely restrictive embargo on Japan in the hopes of curbing Japan's aggression. The Japanese decided to launch a surprise attack against the United States at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on Dec. 7, 1941 (a "day that will live in infamy" according to the famous words of FDR). The United States abandoned its policy of isolationism and entered WWII by declaring war on Japan the following day.

51

V-J (Victory in Japan) Day

Celebrated on August 15, 1945 after the dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan; the celebrations continued through the official end of WWII on September 2, 1945 when Japan officially surrendered

52

V-E Day

May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered

53

Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)

33rd President: a. Atomic bombs dropped (1945) b. Yalta Conference (1945)

54

Potsdam Conference

July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.

55

D-Day (June 6, 1944)

June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

56

General Dwight D. Eisenhower

led the Allied invasion of North African and planned and executed the D-Day invasion at Normandy and the Battle of the Bulge

57

Douglas MacArthur

(1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.

58

Battle of Midway

1942 World War II battle between the United States and Japan, a turning point in the war in the Pacific

59

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

a nonviolent interracial group founded in 1942 by James Farmer to work against segregation in Northern cities

60

Fair Employment Practices Commission

FDR issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies, unions, and companies involved in war-related work It guaranteed the employment of 2 million black workers in the war factories.

61

Bracero Program

United States labor agents recruited thousands of farm and railroad workers from Mexico. The program stimulated emigration for Mexico.

62

WAC

Women's Army Corps

63

WAVES

Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Service in the Navy

64

SPARS

Women serving in the coast guard.

65

Smith Conally Anti Strike Act 1943

Authorized the federal government to seize and operate tied up industries. Washington took over coal mines and railroads

66

National War Labor Board (NWLB)

Government agency that imposed ceilings on wage increases; contested by many labor unions.

67

Office of Price Administration

Instituted in 1942, this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation, profiteering, hoarding and price administration. The OPA froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas, oil, butter, meat, sugar, coffee and shoes in order to support the war effort and prevent inflation.

68

War Production Board (WPB)

a government agency set up to oversee production of war materials during World War II

69

Executive Order 9066

Feb. 19, 1942; 112,000 Japanese-Americans forced into camps causing loss of homes & businesses, 600K more renounced citizenship; demonstrated fear of Japanese invasion

70

ABC-1 agreement (1941)

An agreement between Britain and the United States developed at a conference in Washington, D.C., between January 29-March 27, 1941, that should the United States enter World War II, the two nations and their allies would coordinate their military planning, making a priority of protecting the British Commonwealth. That would mean "getting Germany first" in the Atlantic and the European theater and fighting more defensively on other military fronts.

71

War Refugee Board (WRB)

Federal agency created in 1944 to try to help people threatened with murder by the Nazis