American Pageant Chapter 28

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1

Henry Demarest Lloyd

He wrote the book "Wealth Against Commonwealth" in 1894. It was part of the progressive movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrong in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company.

2

Thorstein Veblen

(1857-1929) American economist (of Norwegian heritage). He is primarily remembered for his book "The Theory of the Leisure Class" (1899) that introduced phrases like "conspicuous consumption." He is remembered for likening the ostentation of the rich to the Darwinian proofs-of-virility found in the animal kingdom.

3

Jacob Riis

A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote "How The Other Half Lives" in 1890.

4

Lincoln Steffens

United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title "Shame of the Cities"

5

Theodore Dreiser

American naturalist who wrote "The Financier" and "The Titan". Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.

6

Jane Addams

1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.

7

Lillian Wald

Founder of Henry Street Settlement House in NY and Founder of Public Health Nursing

8

Ida Tarbell

A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work "A History of Standard Oil"

9

Ray Stannard Baker

Wrote the book 'Following the Color Line', becoming the first prominent journalist to examine America's racial divide. It was extremely successful.

10

Robert M. La Follette

A proponent of Progressivism and a vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, WWI, and the League of Nations. He ran for President as the nominee of his own Progressive Party in 1924.

11

Hiram Johnson

The reform governor of California who fought against the economic and political power of the Southern Pacific Railroad. He was successful.

12

Frances Willard

Became leader of the WCTU. She worked to educate people about the evils of alcohol. She urged laws banning the sale of liquor. Also worked to outlaw saloons as step towards strengthening democracy.

13

Florence Kelley

reformer who worked to prohibit child labor and to improve conditions for female workers

14

Louis D. Brandeis

wrote the book "Other People's Money and How the Bankers Use It". Further showed the problems of the American banking system. Wilson nominated him to the supreme court making him the first Jewish person in that position.

15

Upton Sinclair

muckraker who shocked the nation when he published "The Jungle", a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.

16

John Muir

(1838-1914) Naturalist who believed the wilderness should be preserved in its natural state. He was largely responsible for the creation of Yosemite National Park in California.

17

Jack London

Author of "The Call of the Wild" (1903) which portrayed the conflict between nature and civilization

18

Gifford Pinchot

head of the U.S. Forest Service under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them

19

Eugene V. Debs

one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World and five times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States

20

Nelson Aldrich

was a prominent American politician and a leader of the Republican Party in the Senate, where he served from 1881 to 1911. By the 1890s he was one of the "Big Four" key Republicans who largely controlled the major decisions of the Senate. He was deeply committed to the efficiency model of the Progressive Era.

21

William Jennings Bryan

United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)

22

William Howard Taft

27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.

23

Victor Berger

First socialist elected to Congress (US House of Representative, from Wisconsin). Congress, caught up in the hyper-patriotic wartime mood and refused to allow him to be seated (because he was opposed to the war and also because he had been convicted and sentenced to 20 years in federal prison for breaking the Espionage & Sedition Acts). His seat remained vacant until 1921. Later pardoned, he was re-elected and served until 1928.

24

Richard Ballinger

Taft's Secretary of the Interior, allowed a private group of business people to obtain several million acres of Alaskan public lands

25

initiative

A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.

26

referendum

A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.

27

recall

A procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.

28

"white slave" traffic

1910; made it illegal for women to be imported or transported between states for immoral purposes. Intended to keep men from traveling or immigrating with women who were not their wives.

29

"separate spheres"

Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics

30

dry state

a state in the United States in which the manufacture, distribution, importation, and sale of alcoholic beverages are prohibited or tightly restricted.

31

wet state

a state in the United States in which the manufacture, distribution, importation, and sale of alcoholic beverages is allowed

32

trustbusting

Government activities seeking to dissolve corporate trusts and monopolies

33

conservation

Protecting and preserving natural resources and the environment

34

preservationism

a holistic view of nature that assumes that an intact ecosystem is greater than the sum of its parts, with an emphasis on preserving natures because of this extra value above and beyond the value of the individual parts

35

dollar diplomacy

Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.

36

"rule of reason"

The criterion introduced by the Supreme Court in 1911 to determine whether a particular action was illegal ("unreasonable") or legal ("reasonable") within the terms of the Sherman Act

37

muckrakers

1906 - Journalists who searched for corruption in politics and big business

38

The Theory of the Leisure Class

Book by Thorstein Veblen, which stated that the rich only engaged in wasteful business, not industry that was helpful to society

39

How the Other Half Lives

A book by John Riis that told the public about the lives of the immigrants and those who live in the tenements

40

The Shame of the Cities

Lincoln Steffens; revealed the prevalence of municipal corruption in a series of articles later compiled into this work.

41

Seventeenth Amendment

1913 constitutional amendment allowing American voters to directly elect US senators

42

Eighteenth Amendment

prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages

43

General Federation of Women's Clubs

united mostly middle class, white women; discussed civic issues and literary issues, advocates for children clinics, schools, purer food and drug supply, and women's suffrage, initiate letter writing campaign (since they can't vote), still segregated

44

Women's Trade Union League

First national association dedicated to promoting women's labor issues

45

National Consumers League

Formed in 1899, this organization was concerned with improving the working and living conditions of women in the workplace.

46

Elkins Act

(1903) gave the Interstate Commerce Commission more power to control railroads from giving preferences to certain customers

47

Hepburn Act

This 1906 law used the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the maximum charge that railroads to place on shipping goods.

48

Northern Securities case

Roosevelt's legal attack on the Northern Securities Company, which was a railroad holding company owned by James Hill and J.P. Morgan. In the end, the company was "trust-busted" and paved the way for future trust-busts of bad trusts.

49

Muller v. Oregon

1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health

50

Lochner v. New York

(1905) This supreme court case debated whether or not New York state violated the liberty of the fourteenth amendment which allowed him to regulate his business when he made a contract. The specific contract he made violated the New York statute which stated that bakers could not work more than 60 hours per week, and more than 10 hours per day. Ultimately, it was ruled that the New York State law was invalid, and interfered with the freedom of contract

51
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Triangle Shirtwaist fire

March 1911 fire in New York factory that trapped young women workers inside locked exit doors; nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death; while 100 died inside the factory; led to the establishment of many factory reforms, including increasing safety precautions for workers

52
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Women's Christian Temperance Union

This organization was dedicated to the idea of the 18th Amendment - the Amendment that banned the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcohol. The pres of the company was Frances Willard.

53
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the Square Deal

Teddy Roosevelt's campaign slogan in the election of 1904. It was meant that all Americans should have an equal opportunity to succeed.

54
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The Jungle

This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.

55
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Meat Inspection Act

1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.

56

Pure Food and Drug Act

1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.

57

Newlands Act

Congressional response to Theodore Roosevelt in 1902. Washington was to collect money from sales of public lands in western states and use funds for development of irrigation projects

58

Sierra Club

America's oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization founded in 1892 in San Fransisco, Cali first President was John Muir group was pushed by the wealthy because they wanted to conserve the nature (despite all the land the already own and "corrupted") for their later generations

59
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Yosemite National Park

1880s in California; created by Congress; Controversy over the Hetch Hetchy Valley there-San Francisco residents worried about needing more water, want it to be a reservoir. Naturalists say no. after many years of delays construction finally began after WWI

60

New Nationalism

Teddy Roosevelt's progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice

61

U.S. Forest Service

this organization created by Teddy Roosevelt in 1905 brought the federal government to regulate the natural environment

62

Ballinger-Pinchot affair

Ballinger, who was the Secretary of Interior, opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska against Roosevelt's conservation policies. Pinchot, who was the Chief of Forestry, supported former President Roosevelt and demanded that Taft dismiss Ballinger. Taft, who supported Ballinger, dismissed Pinchot on the basis of insubordination. This divided the Republican Party.

63

Payne-Aldrich Tariff Bill

Taft signed this law that increased import taxes. This was a very regressive tax (regressive = costs the poor and middle class more than it costs the rich). Teddy knew it would be difficult to get Congress to lower taxes on the poor and middle class but was outraged when Taft agreed to sign this law that so clearly increased taxes on working people.

64

Old Guard

One of two major factions largely within the Republican party, composed of the party regulars and professional politicians. They were preoccupied with building up the party machinery, developing party loyalty, and acquiring and dispensing patronage. They were challenged by progressives from around 1896 to the 1930s.

65
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McClure's Magazine

Muckrakers produced a series of startling exposes; was the leading journal for Muckraking articles

66

Thomas W. Lawson

an erratic speculator who had himself made $50 million on the stock market, laid bare the practices of his accomplices in "Frenzied Finance." This series of articles, appeared in 1905-1906, magazine Everybody's.

67

David G. Phillips

Wrote a series in Cosmopolitan titled "The Treason of the Senate" which boldly charged that 75 of the 90 senators represented the railroads and trusts, not the people. His indictment impressed President Roosevelt. He continued his writing until he was killed in 1911.

68
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John Spargo

The Bitter Cry of the Children,Journalist and novelist, he wrote of the unfair treatment of children used as child labor. Stressed better education, better schools and teachers. A muckraker novel.

69

Harvey Wiley

A prominent figure in the formation of the FDA and fought to ban harmful food additives

70

Secret (Australian) Ballot

A ballot printed by a state that allows voters to pick and choose among different candidates and party preferences in private

71

Direct election

election of an official directly by the people rather than by an intermediary group such as the Electoral College

72

Millionaire's Club

A traditional, pejorative name for the United States Senate

73
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17th Amendment

Direct election of senators

74
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Woman Suffrage Movement

*Organized in mid 19th century to gain right to vote for women *First success: Wyoming Territory grants right to vote to women *Final success: Nineteenth Amendment in 1920 which granted woman suffrage throughout the U.S.

75
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Galveston Hurricane

devastating hurricane that killed more than 8,000 people in galveston texas in 1900. helped spur demands that local and state governments be more responsive to people's needs

76

Charles Evans Hughes

A reformist Republican governor of New York, who had gained fame as an investigator of malpractices by gas and insurance companies and by the coal trust. He later ran against Wilson in the 1916 election.

77

Department of Commerce and Labor

Department established by Roosevelt to deal with domestic economic affairs. Later split into two departments for better management.

78

Desert Land Act of 1877

An act which was passed to encourage the development of agriculture in the more arid locations of the Western United States.

79

Carey Act of 1894

distributed federal land to the states on the condition that it be irrigated and settled

80
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Newland Act of 1902

Money from the sale of public lands in western states and territories was to be used to build large dams and canal systems to conserve water for irrigation.

81

multiple-use resource management

Under TR, professional foresters and engineers developed this policy to combine recreation, sustained-yield logging, watershed protection, and summer stock grazing all on the same land.

82

The Panic of 1907

A financial crisis that happened when the New York Stock Exchange crashed. Panic spread through the nation, resulting in many runs on banks and bank failures. It led to the creation of the Federal Reserve. Also known as the Bankers' Panic.

83

Aldrich-Vreeland Act of 1908

Authorized banks to issue emergency currency backed by various collateral; Increases money supply in times of crisis

84

Dollar Diplomacy

Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.

85

Trustbuster

a person working to destroy monopolies and trusts

86

"Mother of Trusts"

a term for the high protective tariff; lowering the barriers of this tariff was high on the agenda of progressive members of the Republican party