Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions: Issues and Ethics - Chapter 10 Flashcards
Consists of evaluating the relevant factors in a client's life to identify themes for further exploration. Provides direction to the treatment process.
identifying a specific mental disorder based on a pattern of symptoms that leads to a specific diagnosis described in the DSM-5. The diagnosis may happen during the assessment. Provides direction to the treatment process.
Pschodiagnosis or Psychological diagnosis
A general term covering the process of identifying an emotional or behavior problem and making a statement about the current status of a client. It might also include identifying a syndrome that conforms to a diagnostic system such as the DSM-5
Proces of distinguishing one form of metnal disorder from another by determining which of two or more disorders with similar symptoms the person is suffering from.
What type of things may be considered in a psychodiagnostic or psychological diagnosis
Identifying possible causes of the person's emotional, cognitive, physiological ad behavioral difficulties. It is crucial that you consider cultural factors and how this may influence client's behaviors, feelings thoughts and symptom presentation. Clients's experience with oppression and entitlement is important to be considered too.
Assessing symptoms and thinking critically about how the symptoms impair the client's ability to function in daily life.
Tools may be used to assess this process including clinical interviewing, observation, psychometric tests, and rating scales or medical referral for obserbation.
Why is the clinical interview a useful tool in the assessment and diagnostic process?
Some psychoanalytically oriented therapists favor psychodiagnosis. This is due to the fact that psychoanalytic practice was limited to persons trained in medicine.
Assessment is often used. The first session focuses on developing a relationship based on a deeper understanding of the individual's presenting problem. A comprehensive assessment involves examining the client's lifestyle. The counselor seeks to ascertain the faulty, self-defeating beliefs and assumptions about self and life that maintain the problematic behavioral parents the client brings to therapy.
The main goal of existential clinical assessment is to understand the personal meaning and assumptions clients use in structering their existence. This approach is different from the traditional diagnostic framework as it focuses on understanding the client's inner world, not the individual from an external perspective.
Like existential therapists, person-centered practitioners maintain that the best vantage point for understanding another person is through his or her subjective world. They believe that traditional assessment and diagnosis are detrimental because they are external ways of understanding the client.
Gestalt therapists attend to interruptions in the client's here-and-now awareness and encourage clients to explore to what they are experiencing in the present. The emphasis on the present moment is viewed as being more important than interpretations or any diagnosis.
The behavioral approach begins with an assessment of the client's present functioning with questions directed to past learning that is related to current behavior. Counselors with a behavioral orientation generally favor a diagnostic stance, valuing observation and other objective means of appraising both a client's specific symptoms and the factors that have led to the client's malfunctioning. Such an appraisal, they argue, enables them to use the techniques that are appropriate for a particular disorder and to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment program..
The assessment used in cognitive-behavioral therapy is based on getting a sense of the client's pattern of thinking using a collaborative approach. Once self-defeating beliefs have been identified, the treatment process involves challenging specific thought patterns and substituting constructive ones.
Realit Therapy does not make use of psychological testing and traditional diagnosis. Instead, through the use of questions, the therapist helps clients make an assessment of their current behavior. This informal assessment encourages clients to focus on what they want from life and to determine whether what they are doing is working for them.
Feminist therapists have criticized DSM classification system, claiming it emphasizes the individual's symptoms and ignores the social factors that cause the dysfunctional behavior. It focuses on the cultural context of client's problems especially the degree to which clients possess power or are oppressed. Feminist assessment and diagnosis require a cooperative and phenomenological approach.
Solution-focused brief therapy and narrative therapy are two examples of postmodern therapists that do not focus on formal diagnosis or categorization of individuals. Postmodern approaches do not highlight a client's deficits, problems, failures, and what is wrong with people. Instead, the focus is placed on an individual's competencies, accomplishments, skills, strengths, and success. Assessments and diagnosis are usually done by a collaborative conversation with the client.