What are the 6 organs of the respiratory system?
where does gas exchange occur?
alveoli of the lungs
what do the passage ways in the lungs do to upcoming air?
purify, humidify and warm the incoming air.
what is the only visible part of the respiratory system?
where does air enter through?
external nostrils (nares)
what does the interior of the nose consist of?
nasal cavity divided by a nasal spetum
where are the olfactory receptors located?
mucosa on the superior surface
what does the repiratory mucosa do?
moisten air and trap incoming foreign particles
what are the projections of the lateral walls called?
What do the conchae do?
increase surface area, increase air turbulence within the nasal cavity.
what are the cavities within bones surrounding the nasal cavities called?
the nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by the what?
What is the anterior hard palate made of?
what is the posterior soft palate made of?
sinuses are located in what 4 bones?
what are the 3 functions of the sinuses?
lightens the skull
act as resonance chambers for speech
produce mucus that drains into the nasal cavity
what is another name for the pharynx?
what are the common passage ways for food and air?
the oropharynx and laryngopharynx
what is the pharynx?
the muscular passage from nasal cavity to larynx.
What are the 3 regions of the pharynx?
what tubes open into the nasopharynx?
what are the names of the 3 tonsils of the pharynx?
what is another name for pharyngeal tonsil?
what is another name for the voice box?
what does the larynx do?
routes air and food into proper channels and plays a role in speech
what is the voice box/larynx made up of?
eight rigid hyaline cartilages and a spoon shapped flap of elsatic cartilage.
what is the spoon shaped flap that helps make up the larynx?
what are the 4 structures of the larynx?
vocal folds (true vocal cords)
What is the thyroid cartilage made up of?
what is the name of the thyroid cartilage that protrudes anteriorly?
what does the epiglottis do?
protects the superior opening of the larynx
routes food to the esophagus and air toward the trachea
when swallowing, the epiglottis rises and forms a lid over the opening of the larynx.
what do the true vocal cords or vocal folds do to create sound?
vibrate with expelled air
what is the glottis?
opening between vocal cords
what is the trachea known as?
how long is the trachea?
what is the trachea?
tube that connects larynx with bronchi
what are the walls of the trache reinforced with?
c shaped hyaline cartilage
what is the trachea lined with?
what does the trachea expel?
mucus loaded with dust and other debris, away from the lungs.
what is formed by the divison of the trachea?
where does the main bronchi enter the lung?
at the hilum
the right bronchus is ______, ______ and _______ than left.
wide, shorter, and straighter
the bronchi subdivides into smaller and smaller what?
What occupies most of the thoracic cavity?
Where does the heart occupy?
the central portion called the mediastinum
Where is the apex?
near the clavicle (superior portion)
what does the base rest on?
the diaphragm (inferior portion)
each lung is divided into lobes by the _______?
how many lobes does the left lung have?
how many lobes does the right lung have?
what covers the outer surface of the lungs?
what covers the lung surface?
pulmonary (visceral) pleura
what lines the walls of the thoracic cavity?
pleural fluid fills the area between layers of pleura, why?
to allow gliding
the pulmonary and parietal pleura layers resist being what?
All but the smallest of the bronchial/respiratory tree divisions have __________ _______ in their walls.
what are the 5 divisions of the bronchial tree divisons?
what are the structures of the respiratory zone?
alveoli (air sacs)
what is the only site of gas exchange?
What is the respiratory membrane also known as?
what is the respiratory membrane?
thin squamous epithelial layer that lines alveolar walls.
what do thealveolar pores connect?
neighboring air sacs
what do pulmonary capillaries cover?
external surfaces of alveoli
on one side of the respiratory membrane there is air and on the other side is ?
blood flowing past
Gas crosses the respiratory membrane by _______.
during gas exchange, what enters the blood and what enters the alveoli?
oxygen enters the blood and carbon dioxide enters the alveoli.
What do alveolar macrophages do and what are they known as?
known as dust cells and add protetion by picking up bacteria, carbon particles and other debris.
what is surfactant?
a lipid molecule
what does surfactant do?
coats gas- exposed alveolar surfaces.
What are the 4 events of respiration?
respiratory gas transport
which event of respiration is commonly known as breathing?
pulmonary ventilation. (moving air in and out of the lungs.
which event of respiration is the gas exchange etween pulmonary blood and alveoli?
during external respiration, what is loaded into the blood and what is unloaded from the blood?
oxygen is loaded and carbon dioxide is unloaded.
what happens during respiratory gas transport?
oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported via the blood stream, to and from tissues.
What happens during internal respiration?
gas exchange between blood and tissue cells in systemic capillaries.
volume changes during pulmonary ventilation lead to ________ changes, which lead to the flow of ______ to equalize pressure.
what are the 2 phases of pulmonary ventilation?
inspiration and expiration.
what happens during inspiration?
what happens during expiration?
inspiration-inhalation- flow of air into lungs
expiration- exhalation- air leaving lungs.
during inspiration what contract?
diaphragm and external intercostal muscles
how does the thoracic cavity change during inspiration?
the size increases
external air is pulled into the lungs due to what 2 things?
increase in intrapulmonary volume
decrease in gas pressure
what is the largely passive process which depends on natural lung elasticity?
during expiration, as muscles relax, air is?
pushed out of the lungs
during expiration, air is pushed out of the lungs due to what 2 things?
decrease in intrapulmonary volume and increase in gas pressure.
force expiration can occur mostly by what?
contracting internal intercostal muscles to depress the rib cage.
normal pressure within the pleural space is always?
differences in the lung and pleural space pressures keep the lung from __________?
What can nonrespiratory air/gas movements be caused from?
relfexes or voluntary actions.
what are examples of nonrespiratory air/gas movements? 5
cough and sneeze, crying, laughing, hiccup, yawn.