Anatomy 2 Respiratory System

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1

What are the 6 organs of the respiratory system?

Nose
pharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchi
lungs-alveoli

2

where does gas exchange occur?

alveoli of the lungs

3

what do the passage ways in the lungs do to upcoming air?

purify, humidify and warm the incoming air.

4

what is the only visible part of the respiratory system?

the nose

5

where does air enter through?

external nostrils (nares)

6

what does the interior of the nose consist of?

nasal cavity divided by a nasal spetum

7

where are the olfactory receptors located?

mucosa on the superior surface

8

what does the repiratory mucosa do?

moisten air and trap incoming foreign particles

9

what are the projections of the lateral walls called?

Conchae

10

What do the conchae do?

increase surface area, increase air turbulence within the nasal cavity.

11

what are the cavities within bones surrounding the nasal cavities called?

sinuses

12

the nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by the what?

the palate

13

What is the anterior hard palate made of?

bone

14

what is the posterior soft palate made of?

muscle

15

sinuses are located in what 4 bones?

frontal bone
sphenoid bone
ethmoid bone
maxillary bone

16

what are the 3 functions of the sinuses?

lightens the skull
act as resonance chambers for speech
produce mucus that drains into the nasal cavity

17

what is another name for the pharynx?

The throat

18

what are the common passage ways for food and air?

the oropharynx and laryngopharynx

19

what is the pharynx?

the muscular passage from nasal cavity to larynx.

20

What are the 3 regions of the pharynx?

nasopharynx
oropharynx
laryngopharynx

21

what tubes open into the nasopharynx?

pharyngotypmpanic tube

22

what are the names of the 3 tonsils of the pharynx?

pharyngeal tonsil
palatine tonsils
lingual tonsils

23

what is another name for pharyngeal tonsil?

adenoids

24

what is another name for the voice box?

larynx

25

what does the larynx do?

routes air and food into proper channels and plays a role in speech

26

what is the voice box/larynx made up of?

eight rigid hyaline cartilages and a spoon shapped flap of elsatic cartilage.

27

what is the spoon shaped flap that helps make up the larynx?

epiglottis

28

what are the 4 structures of the larynx?

thyroid cartilage
epiglottis
vocal folds (true vocal cords)
glottis

29

What is the thyroid cartilage made up of?

hyaline cartilages

30

what is the name of the thyroid cartilage that protrudes anteriorly?

adams apple

31

what does the epiglottis do?

protects the superior opening of the larynx
routes food to the esophagus and air toward the trachea
when swallowing, the epiglottis rises and forms a lid over the opening of the larynx.

32

what do the true vocal cords or vocal folds do to create sound?

vibrate with expelled air

33

what is the glottis?

opening between vocal cords

34

what is the trachea known as?

the windpipe

35

how long is the trachea?

4 inches

36

what is the trachea?

tube that connects larynx with bronchi

37

what are the walls of the trache reinforced with?

c shaped hyaline cartilage

38

what is the trachea lined with?

cilated mucosa

39

what does the trachea expel?

mucus loaded with dust and other debris, away from the lungs.

40

what is formed by the divison of the trachea?

main/primary bronchi

41

where does the main bronchi enter the lung?

at the hilum

42

the right bronchus is ______, ______ and _______ than left.

wide, shorter, and straighter

43

the bronchi subdivides into smaller and smaller what?

branches

44

What occupies most of the thoracic cavity?

the lungs

45

Where does the heart occupy?

the central portion called the mediastinum

46

Where is the apex?

near the clavicle (superior portion)

47

what does the base rest on?

the diaphragm (inferior portion)

48

each lung is divided into lobes by the _______?

fissures

49

how many lobes does the left lung have?

two

50

how many lobes does the right lung have?

three

51

what covers the outer surface of the lungs?

serosa

52

what covers the lung surface?

pulmonary (visceral) pleura

53

what lines the walls of the thoracic cavity?

parietal pleura

54

pleural fluid fills the area between layers of pleura, why?

to allow gliding

55

the pulmonary and parietal pleura layers resist being what?

pulled apart

56

All but the smallest of the bronchial/respiratory tree divisions have __________ _______ in their walls.

reinforcing cartilage

57

what are the 5 divisions of the bronchial tree divisons?

primary bronchi
secondary bronchi
tertiary bronch
bronchioles
terminal bronchioles

58

what are the structures of the respiratory zone?

respiratory bronchioles
alveolar ducts
alveolar sacs
alveoli (air sacs)

59

what is the only site of gas exchange?

alveoli

60

What is the respiratory membrane also known as?

air-blood barrier

61

what is the respiratory membrane?

thin squamous epithelial layer that lines alveolar walls.

62

what do thealveolar pores connect?

neighboring air sacs

63

what do pulmonary capillaries cover?

external surfaces of alveoli

64

on one side of the respiratory membrane there is air and on the other side is ?

blood flowing past

65

Gas crosses the respiratory membrane by _______.

Diffusion

66

during gas exchange, what enters the blood and what enters the alveoli?

oxygen enters the blood and carbon dioxide enters the alveoli.

67

What do alveolar macrophages do and what are they known as?

known as dust cells and add protetion by picking up bacteria, carbon particles and other debris.

68

what is surfactant?

a lipid molecule

69

what does surfactant do?

coats gas- exposed alveolar surfaces.

70

What are the 4 events of respiration?

pulmonary ventilation
external respiration
respiratory gas transport
internal respiration

71

which event of respiration is commonly known as breathing?

pulmonary ventilation. (moving air in and out of the lungs.

72

which event of respiration is the gas exchange etween pulmonary blood and alveoli?

external respiration

73

during external respiration, what is loaded into the blood and what is unloaded from the blood?

oxygen is loaded and carbon dioxide is unloaded.

74

what happens during respiratory gas transport?

oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported via the blood stream, to and from tissues.

75

What happens during internal respiration?

gas exchange between blood and tissue cells in systemic capillaries.

76

volume changes during pulmonary ventilation lead to ________ changes, which lead to the flow of ______ to equalize pressure.

pressure, gases

77

what are the 2 phases of pulmonary ventilation?

inspiration and expiration.

78

what happens during inspiration?
what happens during expiration?

inspiration-inhalation- flow of air into lungs
expiration- exhalation- air leaving lungs.

79

during inspiration what contract?

diaphragm and external intercostal muscles

80

how does the thoracic cavity change during inspiration?

the size increases

81

external air is pulled into the lungs due to what 2 things?

increase in intrapulmonary volume
decrease in gas pressure

82

what is the largely passive process which depends on natural lung elasticity?

expiration

83

during expiration, as muscles relax, air is?

pushed out of the lungs

84

during expiration, air is pushed out of the lungs due to what 2 things?

decrease in intrapulmonary volume and increase in gas pressure.

85

force expiration can occur mostly by what?

contracting internal intercostal muscles to depress the rib cage.

86

normal pressure within the pleural space is always?

negative

87

differences in the lung and pleural space pressures keep the lung from __________?

collapsing

88

What can nonrespiratory air/gas movements be caused from?

relfexes or voluntary actions.

89

what are examples of nonrespiratory air/gas movements? 5

cough and sneeze, crying, laughing, hiccup, yawn.