Biology Exam II

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created 5 months ago by Colby_Davis
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Campbell Biology, 11th Ed
Chapters 26-31
Chapter 26, 27, 28, 31
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1

Protists

Diplomonads

2 nuclei, simple mitochondria

  • Giardia lamblia (Hiker's diarrhea)
2

Protists

Parabasalids

Simple mitochondria, no plastids

  • Trichomonas vaginalis (causes UTI's)
  • Trichonympha (termite gut symbiont)
3

Protists

Euglenozoa

(crystal rod in flagella)

  • Euglenoids e.g. Euglena (mixotrophic)
  • Kinetoplastids
    • Trypanosoma brucei (African sleeping sickness, tse tse flies)
    • Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease, kissing bug)
4

Protists

Alveolata

(have alveoli (sacs) under cell surface)

  • Dinoflagellates (some are bioluminescent)
    • Red tides, e.g. Pfiesteria piscicida
    • Coral symbionts (McD's of the seas)
  • Apicomplexans (complex of organelles at apex)
    • Plasmodium vivax (malaria, mosquitoes)
  • Ciliates (Paramecium, Stentor)
5

Protists

Stramenopila

(Hairy flagella)

  • Bacillariophyta = Diatoms (e.g. diatomaceous earth)
  • Crysophyta = Golden algae (carotene & xanthophyll)
  • Phaeophyta = Brown algae (e.g. giant kelp) fucoxanthin
  • Oomycota (water mold, white rust, downy mildew)
    • Saprolegnia (white fuzz on dead fish)
    • Phytophthora infestans (Irish potato famine)
    • Convergent evolution in oomycetes and fungi
6

Protists

Radiolarians

reinforced thread-like pseudopodia

7

Protists

Forams

Thread-like pseudopodia poke through pores

8

Protists

Cercozoa

(Thread-like pseudopodia)

  • Paulinella chromatophora
    • Sausage shaped chromatophore
9

Protists

Amoebozoa

  • Gymnaemoebas (free-living)
    • Amoeba
  • Entamoebas (parasitic)
  • Plasmodial Slime Molds (1 super cell, 2n)
  • Cellular Slime Molds (many cells, 1n)
10

Protists

Rhodophyta

Red algae

phycoerythrin absorbs shorter wavelengths of light. e.g. Nori, agar

11

Protists

Chlorophyta

Green algae

Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light.

e.g. Ulva, Sea lettuce, multicellular protist

12

Coccus

Spherical

13

Bacillus

Rod-shaped

14

Helical

Spiral-shaped

15

Vibrio

Comma-shaped

16

Gram positive

  • Simple cell walls
  • Lots of peptidoglycan
  • Stains violet
17

Gram negative

  • Complex cell walls
  • Less peptidoglycan
  • Stains red
18

Photoautotrophs

  • Energy source
    • Light
  • Carbon source
    • CO2
19

Chemoautotrophs

  • Energy source
    • Inorganic chemicals (H2S, NH3)
  • Carbon source
    • CO2
20

Photoheterotrophs

  • Energy source
    • Light
  • Carbon source
    • Organic compounds
21

Chemoheterotrophs

  • Energy source
    • Organic compounds
  • Carbon source
    • Organic compounds
22

Parasites

  • Energy source
    • Alive
  • Carbon source
    • Alive
23

Saprobes

  • Energy source
    • Dead
  • Carbon source
    • Dead
24

Aerobes

Requires O2 to live

25

Anaerobes

Does not require O2 to live

26

Facultative anaerobes

Can grow in the presence of O2 (makes ATP by cellular respiration) or in the absence of O2 (fermentation).

27

Exotoxin

Poisons secreted by some prokaryotes

  • Clostridium botulinum (paralysis)
  • Clostridium tetani (Muscle contraction, lockjaw)
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
28

Endotoxin

Poisons in the cell wall

  • Salmonella (food poisoning)
29

Alpha Proteobacteria

e.g. Rhizobium (nitrogen fixation: N2 to NH3)

30

Beta Proteobacteria

  • Nitrosomas (nitrifying bacteria: NH4+ to NO2-)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea, #2 STD)
31

Gamma Proteobacteria

  • Enteric bacteria (inhabit intestines)
    • Escherichia coli (0157:H7)
    • Salmonella (endotoxin food poisoning)
    • Vibrio cholerae (cholera)
  • Legionella (Legionnaire's disease)(amoebas)
  • Yersinia pestis (Bubonic plague) (fleas)
32

Delta Proteobacteria

Bdellovibrio (fast predator of other bacteria)

33

Epsilon Proteobacteria

Heliobacter pylori (GI ulcers)

34

Chlamydia trachomatis

  • #1 STD
  • #1 cause of blindness worldwide
  • Survive only in host animal cells, no peptidoglycan
35

Spirochetes (helical)

  • Treponema pallidum (syphilis)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease, deer ticks)
    • Oak acorn mast connection
36

Gram + bacteria that is colonial

  • Streptomyces (source of >1/2 our antibiotics)
  • "mycetes" or "myces" endings to the names like in fungi. Colonies resemble the hyphae of fungus, hence the ending)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
37

Gram + bacteria that is solitary (also endospore-forming)

  • Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)
  • Clostridium botulinum (botulism)
  • Clostridium tetani (tetanus)
38

Gram + bacteria that is non-spore-forming

Streptococcus and Staphylococcus

  • Streptococcus pyogenes
    • Flesh-eating exotoxin
  • Streptococcus mutans (cavities)
39

Gram + bacteria that lack cell walls

Mycoplasmas (walking pneumonia)

40

Cyanobacteria

Only prokaryotes that do oxygenic photosynthesis

  • e.g. Oscillatoria (e.g. Red Sea)
41

Decomposers

Break down dead organisms, waste

42

Methanogens

Treat sewage, produce methane gas

43

Symbiosis

Vitamin K production in your gut

44
  • Domain Archaea
    • KIngdom Archaea
  • Thermophiles
  • Halophiles
  • Methanogens
45
  • Domain Bacteria
    • Kingdom Bacteria
  • Proteobacteria
  • Chlamydias
  • Spirochetes
  • Gram + bacteria
  • Cyanobacteria
46

Chemotaxis

Change movement for pattern in response to chemicals

47

Positive chemotaxis

Towards nutrients or oxygen

48

Negative chemotaxis

Away from a toxic substance

49

What leads to genetic diversity in prokaryotes?

Rapid reproduction, mutation and genetic recombination.

50

Obligate aerobes

Need O2 for cellular respiration to survive

51

Obligate anaerobes

Are poisoned by O2.

52

An ecological relationship in which two species live in close contact with each other

Symbiosis

53

An ecological interaction between two species in which both benefit

Mutualism

54

An ecological relationship in which one species benefits while the other is not harmed or helped in any significant way.

Commensalism

55

An ecological relationship in which a parasite eats the cell contents, tissues, or bodily fluids of its host.

Parasitism

56

Parasites that cause disease

Pathogens

57

In the United States the most wide-spread pest carried disease is...

Lyme disease.

58

A relationship between two species in which one organism lives inside the cell or cells of another organism (the host).

Endosymbiosis