Cardiac Pharma 2
Used to treat urinary retention, cholinergic agonist
-Do not use in urinary/intestinal obstruction
-increase digestive enzymes (parasympathetic)
- parasympathetic overload (brady, low BP, bronchoconstriction)
Indirect acting cholinergic agonists inactivate
What are irreversible cholinergic agonists (cholinesterase inhibitors) primarily used for?
What are reversible cholinergic agonists (cholinesterase inhibitors) used for?
Myasthenia gravis and alzheimers
Cholinergic overdose antidote?
Cholinergic agonists may cause
Antidote for atropine?
Cholinisterase inhibitor side effects
GI distress, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, salivation, bronchoconstriction, anorexia, bradycardia, hypotension, sweating
How long does cholinesterase take to replenish after use of an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor?
Days or weeks
Atropine comes from what plant?
Anticholinergics are also called
Cholinergics are also called
Anti parkinson drugs are
Benztropine side effects
nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, dizziness, headache, drowsiness, depression, weakness, confusion, mydriasis, urinary retention
Two important factors: Atropine
-DO not take if you have narrow angle glaucoma--IOP
- Drowsiness common-do not drive
Anticholinergic drugs can do what to eyes?
Increase intraocular pressure
factors that determine stroke volume
preload, contractility, afterload
Digialis/ digoxin is made from
How do digitalis glycosides help HF?
increase contraction and lower HR through decreasing conduction
Digitalis glycosides inhibit
the NA/K pump
Cardiac glycosides can be used for
decrease conduction/decrease HR
What can promote digoxin toxicity?
Electrolyte deficits, thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, proton pump inhibitors
Digoxin side effects
nausea vomiting dizziness visual impairments depression anxiety
digoxin immune fab
Cardiac glycosides main function
increase myocardial contraction
3 factors digoxin toxicity
AV conduction suppression
decreased ventricular refractory
Crazy list of herbal interactions with digoxin
st johns wort
Digoxin and hypokalemia
-take apical pulse
-dixoxin level higher than 2 ng/ml toxic
- monitor potassium
Drugs for angina
transdermal patch nitro
Which antianginal is highly protein bound?
Peripheral edema can be caused by
Drug with high rate of cardiac death in high doses
Beta blocker for ventricular dysrhythmias
transport fatty acids and cholesterol to liver
apo-B-100 (has vldl) apo-B-48
Niacin is vitamin
Niacin works on
VLDL and LDL
cholesterol synthesis in the liver
Statins may cause
lower VLDL, LDL< cholesterol
increase HDL slightly
Niacin side effects
hypotension, hyperglycemia, dizziness, headache, cough, hyperuricemia, peptic ulcer, pruritis
Atorvastatin may cause
What is homocysteine
amino acid linked to heart disease, stroke, Alzheimer's,
What is C-reactive protein?
inflammatory protein found in cardiovascular disease
HDL should be
Antihyperlipidemics effect what organ negatively
Antihyperlipidemics cause what kind of distress
What can combat the negative effects of niacin?
Direct acting vasodilator treats PAD and claudication
Headache, diarrhea, abnormal stools
GI distress, headache, dizziness, nasopharyngitis, influenza, peripheral edema