Connective Tissues

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1

List and describe the major functions of connective tissues.

  • Binding of organs - tendons and ligaments
  • Support - bones and cartilage
  • Physical protection —cranium, ribs, sternum
  • Movement - bones provide lever system.
  • Storage - fat, calcium, phosphorus
  • Cushion and insulate -
  • Heat production - metabolism of brown fat in infants
  • Transportation - blood
  • Immune protection —white blood cells attack foreign invaders.
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4 Types of Connective Tissues

Fibrous

  • Loose:
    • Areolar
    • Reticular
  • Dense:
    • Regular
    • Irregular
  • Cartilage
    • Hyaline
    • Elastic
    • Fibrocartilage
  • Other
    • Adipose (fad, lipid) (LOOSE)
    • Blood
    • Bone
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Special Characteristics of Connective Issues

  • Abundance of extracellular matrix (ECM = fibers or fluid) with fewer cells.
  • Encloses and separates the tissues
  • Highly VASCULAR (blood connections)
  • Most abundant & widely distributed
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Types of Fibers in Connective Issues

  • Reticular (Collagenous)
  • Elastic
  • Collagenous
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Reticular Fibers

  • Special Characteristics:
    • Cell Body Shape: Thin collagen fibers coated with glycoprotein that form networks of fibers.
  • Location:
    • Form a sponge like framework for such organs as the spleen and lymph nodes.
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Elastic Fibers

  • Function:
    • Allows stretch and recoil
    • Branch and rejoin each other
    • thinner than collagen fibers
  • Location:
    • Lungs & Arteries
7

Collagen Fibers

Most abundant, tough, flexible

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Loose Areolar Connective Tissue Location

  • Deep to epithelial basement membrane
  • Packing between glands, muscles, and nerves
  • Dermis of skin (papillary layer)
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Loose Areolar Connective Tissue Functions

  • Packing, support, vascular support of epithelial tissues (supply nutrients/oxygen and remove wastes)
  • Packing and support
  • Supportive structure
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Loose Adipose Connective Tissue Location

  • Subcutaneous fat
  • Surrounds and supports Mammary glands
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Loose Adipose Connective Tissue Functions

  • Thermal insulation, Packing material,
  • Energy storage, Protection from injury
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Loose Reticular Connective Tissue Location

Lymphatic organs:

  • Spleen, lymph nodes, & Tonsils
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Loose Reticular Connective Tissue Functions

Provides structural support (framework) for lymphatic organs.

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Dense Regular (Collagenous) Fibrous Connective Tissue Location

Tendons and ligaments

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Dense Regular (collagenous) Fibrous Connective Tissue Functions

Withstand force placed on the tissues in one direction (the direction of the fibers)

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Dense Irregular (collagenous) Fibrous Connective Tissue Location

  • Deep layer of the dermis of the skin

Organ capsules (covering)

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Dense Irregular (collagenous) Fibrous Connective Tissue Functions

Withstands stretching in all directions

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Dense Regular Elastic Connective Tissue Functions

  • Vocal Folds
  • Ligaments between vertebrae
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Dense Regular Elastic Connective Tissue Functions

Able to stretch and recoil in the direction of the elastic fibers

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Dense Irregular Elastic Connective Tissue Location

Elastic arteries (Aorta, Vena Cava)

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Dense Irregular Elastic Connective Tissue Functions

Stretching and recoil in all directions.

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Hyaline Cartilage Location

  • Growth plates in bones
  • Nasal cartilages
  • Articular surfaces of bones at joints
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Hyaline Cartilage Functions

  • Bone growth
  • Structural support with flexibility
  • Strong, smooth, flexible articular surfaces of joints
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Fibrocartilage Connective Tissue Location

  • Pubic symphysis
  • Intervertebral disks
  • Menisci of knee
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Fibrocartilage Connective Tissue Functions

  • Strong yet slightly flexible connection of pelvis
  • Withstands great pressure of moving spine, somewhat flexible
  • Shock absorption, somewhat flexible connection
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Elastic Cartilage Connective Tissue Location

  • External ears
  • Epiglottis (tissue that opens and closes when you swallow to divert food away from the trachea)
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Elastic Cartilage Connective Tissue Functions

Most flexible yet still rigid of the cartilages because the elastic fibers recoil to original shape after stretching

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Blood Locations

  • In blood vessels
  • Heart
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Blood Functions

  • Transport Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, nutrients, hormones, and waste products
  • Protection from infection (white blood cells)
  • Temperature regulation
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Loose Reticular Characteristics

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  • Cell Body Shape : Loose network of reticular fibers & cells
    • Looks like cherry blossoms or marble
  • Infiltrated by lots of WBC (White Blood Cells)
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Loose Adipose Characteristics

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  • Cell Body Shape: Empty-looking (large and open) cells with thin margins.
  • Small nucleus pressed against cell membrane.
  • Predominant cells are adipocytes.
  • Very pale because of scarcity of stained cytoplasm
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Loose Areolar Charateristics

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  • Cell Body Shape: Scatter collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers.
  • Many cells of various types
    • Most Abundant
  • Numerous blood vessels
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Dense Regular Characteristics

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  • Cell Body Shape: Densely packed, parallel, often wavy sheets collagen fibers, elastic tissue/fibers
  • Slender nuclei compressed between collagen bundles
  • Few blood vessels.
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Dense Irregular Characteristics

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  • Cell Body Shape: Densely packed collagen fibers going in random directions. Irregular in shape; randomly arranged.
  • Few visible cells
  • Few blood cells.
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Hyaline Cartilage

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  • Cell Body Shape: Often in small clusters of 2-4 cells (chondrocytes)
    • Chondrocytes make cartilage.
    • Looks like eyes or fish eggs.
    • Rounded or polygonal chondrocytes
  • Shiny translucent appearance, clear, glassy matrix
    • Usually because of fineness of the collagen fibers
  • Collagen fibers not obvious
36

Elastic Cartilage

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  • Cell Body Shape: Fine elastic fibers form weblike mesh-like bundles and lacunae. Round.
  • Always covered by perichondrium
  • Fibers are fine and dark (elastic fibers)
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Fibrocartilage

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  • Cell Body Shape: Round to oval shaped; bound together orderly.
  • Contains large, coarse bundles of collagen fibers.
    • Numerous parallel collagen fibers.
  • Rows of unclustered chondrocytes in lacunae between collagens.
  • Strongest of the 3 cartilages and most durable.
38

Bone

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  • Cell Body Shape: Osteons are large, cork-like circles with mineralized concentric rings around central canal.
    • Arranged in cylinders (rings of tree)
  • Dominated by osteons.
  • Tiny dark dots in rings are cells (osteocytes)
  • Densely packed
  • Blood vessels present.
    • Blood vessels and nerves
39

Blood

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  • Cell Body Shape: Numerous tiny, circular, bell shaped cells (erythrocytes) with thinner margins.
    • Often very pale because of scarcity of stained cytoplasm.
  • Cells suspended in plasma.
  • Typically NO nucleus
40

Tissue Repair

Substitution of dead/damaged cells by viable/functional cells

Types:

  • Labile
  • Stable
  • Permanent
41

Labile

  • CAPABLE OF MITOSIS throughout life (skin, bone marrow cells, and mucous membranes)
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Stable

  • NO MITOSIS after growth ends, but can divide after injury (liver, pancreas, and endocrine cells)
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Permanent

  • If killed, REPLACED by a different type of cell. Limited regenerative ability (nervous, skeletal, and cardiac muscle)