Organelle Structures & Functions

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1

Identify structural features of cells common to most cells.

  • Organelles = Specialized structures which perform specific functions
  • Cytoplasm = Fluid which suspends organelles and is found outside of the nucleus and within the plasma membrane
  • Plasma membrane = Outer boundary of the cell through which the cell interacts with the environment
2

Nucleus

The control center of the cell.

Functions:

  • Houses DNA
  • Contains and protects genetic material (DNA) that provides instructions for functioning and cellular activity.
  • It dictates what the cell is going to do and how it is going to do it.
  • Commands the synthesis of ribosomes and expression of genes.
  • It is also where TRANSCRIPTION and DNA replication happens.
3

Ribosomes

They are made of protein and RNA.

Functions:

  • They synthesize proteins that are used inside the cell (free floating ribosomes) as well as outside the cell (membrane bound ribosomes).
  • They also read RNA.
  • During the Translation process (protein synthesis), strands of mRNA are read which through the formation of amino acids proteins are created.
4

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

It is studded with ribosomes that makes it rough.

Functions:

  • It synthesizes and modifies proteins and lipids for inside the cell membrane or other membranes within the cell.
  • The proteins and lipids are then dispatched to create molecules.
  • Some proteins may be secreted through the ER in vesicles.
5

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

It does not have contain ribosomes to make it rough.

Functions:

  • The synthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, and hormones.
  • Lipids are used to synthesize phospholipids for the cell membrane.
  • It is also used as detoxification.
6

Golgi Apparatus

Functions:

  • It modifies, packages, and sorts carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
  • These macromolecules may end up secreted outside the cell.
7

Lysosome

Membrane-bounded organelle containing a mixture of enzymes.

Functions:

  • Protects the rest of the cell from the harsh digestive enzymes contained in the lysosomes.
  • Digests foreign matter, pathogens, and expired organelles.
8

Mitochondria

The powerhouse of the cell.

Functions:

  • Through cellular respiration, it creates the energy (ATP) for the activity of the cell.
  • The plasma membrane controls the exiting and entering of the cell. It is also a barrier between the cell and outside environment.
9

Centrosome

Made up of centrioles.

Function:

  • Stabilizes the structure of the cell.
  • Centrosomes organize and guide the chromosomes during the replication of cells.
10

Where is the nucleus?

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A

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Where are the Ribosomes?

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D

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Where is the RER?

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C

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Where is the SER?

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I

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Where is the Golgi Apparatus?

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J

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Where is the Mitochondria?

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G

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Where is the Centrosome?

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E

17

How does the lysosome look like?

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Spherical; shape & size varies to some extend.