TBL 1 Prep-work
What is A?
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
What is B?
Tidal Volume (TV)
What is C?
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
What is D?
Residual Volume (RV)
The volume of air that cannot be exhaled from the lungs regardless of the force of expiration is known as __________.
T/F: Residual volume can be measured by spirometry
The maximum volume of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiration is known as _______
ERV + TV + IRV
Inspiratory Capacity (IC) =
TV + IRV
The volume of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ___________
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
___________ is the process by which O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes
How is the majority of CO2 carried in the blood?
Bicarbonate in plasma (~70%)
The law of partial pressure is known as _____________
The absorption of gas in a liquid under partial pressure is an example of _____________
Why would a puncture wound to the left side of the chest that penetrates the pleural cavity cause the lung to collapse?
It would allow air to enter, causing the pleural cavity P to equal ATM. (Transpulmonary P would become 0)
A complete or partial collapse of the entire lung or area (lobe) of the lung is known as _______
If tidal vol is 500 mL and breathing rate is 12 breaths per min, what is the minute ventilation?
If tidal vol is 500 mL and breathing rate is 12 breaths per min, what is the alveolar ventilation?
What is the dead space volume?
If the intrapulmonary P = 0 mmHg and the intrapleural P = -5 mmHg, what is the transpulmonary P?
____________ is a measure of the ability to stretch and expand the lungs
Define internal respiration
Exchange of O2 and CO2 with tissue not exposed to external environment.
Define external respiration
Exchange of O2 and CO2 in the lungs
What is dead space?
Ventilation w/o respiration
What determines respiratory gas movements?
Partial pressure gradients
What two forces pull the lungs away from the thorax wall?
- Lung recoil
- Surface tension of alveolar fluids
In a closed system, pressure is inversely proportional to volume. This is known as __________
In what ways can O2 be carried in the blood?
- Physically dissolved
- Chemically combined w/ hemoglobin
T/F: Adult hemoglobin has a greater affinity for O2 than fetal hemoglobin
When fully saturated w/ O2, 1 gram of Hb binds how much O2?
What is the oxygen carrying capacity of a person w/ 15g Hb/100 mL of blood?
20.1 mL O2
T/F: % O2 saturation does not equal oxygen content in the blood
% Hb saturation =
O2 bound / O2 capacity
To determine O2 bound =
Capacity * saturation
Total O2 content =
bound + physically dissolved
Po2 of blood entering pulmonary capillaries
Low pH and high PCO2 would shift the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to the _______ (right/left)
High pH and low PCO2 would shift the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to the _______ (right/left)
High temps would shift the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to the _______ (right/left)
Low temps would shift the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to the _______ (right/left)
High [2,3-BPG] would shift the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to the _______ (right/left)
T/F: When bound to hemoglobin, 2,3-BPG increases the affinity of hemoglobin for O2
T/F: More 2,3-BPG is produced during chronic hypoxia conditions
List ways CO2 is transported in the blood
- Physically dissolved (5-10%)
- Carbamino compounds (5-10%)
- Bicarbonate (80-90%)
Describe the Haldane effect
Allows blood to load more CO2 at tissues and unload more CO2 at lungs
According to the Haldane effect, how would an increase in oxyhemoglobin affect the CO2 dissociation curve?
According to the Haldane effect, how would an increase in deoxyhemoglobin affect the CO2 dissociation curve?