Drug Quiz 2_Pearls

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1

Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)

Optimal serum concentrations = 30-40 ng/mL. Calcidiol does not require hepatic metabolist; calcitriol (active form) does not require renal or hepatic metabolism and has faster absorption (hypercalcemia risk)

2

Hydrogen Peroxide

For canker sores, use after meals.

3

Ketoconazole shampoo

More effective if used intermittently after initial course of therapy (weekly). Malassezia fungi thought to be cause of dandruff

4

Ketotifen ophthalmic

Not for contact lens irritation. Contains benzalkonium chloride preservative

5

Lansoprazole

LT use can lead to bone fractures and vit B12 deficiency

6

Levocetirizine

May be useful for urticaria (not FDA approved for it); start at 2.5 mg dose to reduce sedation risk

7

Lidocaine Topical

Cool burn w/ cool running water (not ice/cold water). Cover w/ gauze and wrap lightly. Do not break blisters

8

Magnesium Hydroxide

Laxative of choice for 2-5yo. BM w/in 1-6hrs. Avoid in elderly, HF, or w/ use of diuretic

9

Meclizine

Check package to confirm active ingredient

10

Menthol oral

Major component of peppermint oil

11

Naphazoline Ophthalmic

Ingestion by <6yo can lead to coma, bradycardia, respiratory depression, and sedation. Not for allergic conjunctivitis as monotherapy. Does not treat underlying cause of redness

12

Nicotine

Behavioral and pharmacologic are first line for smoking cessation. Pharmacologic includes replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline

13

Omeprazole

LT use can lead to bone fractures, magnesium, and vit B12 deficiency

14

Orlistat

Weight loss may increase risk of cholelithiasis. Monitor diabetic pts closely. Available in prescription (Xenical) that contains 120 mg/cap

15

Phenazopyridine

Does not treat UTI, only relieves pain. If used in combo w/ antibiotic for UTI, do not use more than 2d

16

Senna

BM w/in 6-24 hrs. Don't take w/ mineral oil

17

Sodium phosphate enema

Useful in pts w/ GI obstruction. BM w/in 3-5 min. Do not use more than 1x/d

18

Terbinafine

Application area should be 1-2 in beyond rash. Continue treat for 1-2 wks after area has healed. Not for vaginal candidiasis

19

Tetrahydrozoline

Ingestion by <6yo can lead to coma, bradycardia, respiratory depression, and death. Not for allergic conjunctivitis as monotherapy. Does not treat underlying cause of redness. Using more than qid or 3 consecutive days can result in rebound congestion

20

Tolnaftate

Should be considered second line for topical fungal dz (time to effect is longer than other topical antifungals)

21

Triamcinolone Nasal

Do not use for common cold

22

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

No effect for cold trtmt

23

Vitamin E (tocopherol)

≥400 u/d should be avoided

24

Witch Hazel

minimize straining at the stool. Increase dietary fiber and fluids.

25

Zinc

Use for colds is controversial. Intranasal formulations should not be used. High doses LT can increase copper deficiency.