Question to ask - Is this situation unethical? Set of obligations and method that focuses on moral issues with the goal of solving a particular or set of dilemnas and used to establish a framework to guide future ethical dilemma and to guide future thinking. ACT +
Doing something that violates an ethic, usually thought of as a big violation, but can actually be small errors unintentionally made by the counselor.
What are the four core virtues that are appropriate for professionals to adhere to in making ethical decisions (Meara and Collegues (1996)?
Prudence, integrity, respectfulness, and benevolence (desire to good to others)
Desricbe e 5 characteristics of virtuous professions.
- Motivated to do right,
- Have vision and discernment, sensitivity and understand that leads to decisive action,
- Have compassion to the suffering of others take actions to reduce pain,
- Are self Aware know how their bias affects others, connected and understand their community and moral decision making,
- Focus on ideals rather than obligations considers both principle and virtues because both are important elements of thinking.
Describe six moral principles that form the foundation of function at the highest ethical level as a professional? (6)
- Autonomy - acknowledging the right of another to choose and act in accordance with his or her wishes, and the professional behaves in a way that enables this right of another person.
- Nonmaleficence - avoiding doing harm and refraining from actions that hurt clients.
- Bebefucebce - refers to doing good for others and to promoting the well-being of clients and doing good for society. It contributes to the growth of clients within their cultural context.
- Justice - to be fair by giving equally to others and to treat others justly regardless of age, sex, race, ethnicity, disability, socioeconomic status, cultural background, religion or sexual orientation and is entitled to equal health care.
- Fidelity - professionals make realistic commitments and keeps promises
- Veracity - which involves the practitioner's obligation to deal honestly with clients.
What is the Social Constructionist Model of ethical decision making?
Shares some aspects with feminist model but focuses primarily on the SOCIAL aspects of decision making. This model redefines the ethical decision-making process as an interactive rather than individual process and the decision in the SOCIAL context itself, not in the mind of the person making the decision. This approach involves NEGOTIATING, CONSENSUALIZING, AND WHEN NECESSARY ARBITTATING.
What is the TRANSCULTURAL INTEGRATIVE MODEL of ethical decision making?
Addresses the need for including CULTURAL FACTORS in the process of resolving ethical dilemmas. It is a step-by-step format that the counselor can use in dealing with ethical dilemmas with different client populations. It is a multicultural perspective based on universalist philosophy and uses common principles such as ALTRUISM, RESPONSIBILITY, JUSTIC,E, AND CARING THAT LINK CULTURES ARE EMPAHASIZED.
What are 8 steps to help in making ethical decisions?
- Identify the problem or dilemma. - Does it truly exist?
- Identify potential issues involved.
- Review the ethic codes
- Know the applicable laws and regulations
- Obtain consultation
- Consider possible and probable courses of action
- Reflect on the consequences of various decision
- Choose best course of action.
What 6 questions should you consider when making virtue-based decisions?
- What emotions and intuition am I aware of as a counselor?
- How can my values best show caring in this situation?
- How will this decision affect other relevant individuals in this ethical dilemma?
- What decisions would I feel best about publizing?
- Have I made any decision I would not want to be publicized?
- What decision would best define who I am as a person?
Virtue Ethics is defined as?
- Focuses on character traits of counselor and not obligatory ideals to which professionals aspire rather than focusing on ethical dilemma.
- The question asked is AM I DOING WHAT IS RIGHT FOR MY CLIENT?
- COUNSELOR SHOULD BALANCE PRINCIPLE AND VIRTUE ETHICS TO THERTHER TO BE BEST
What is the difference between VALUES, ETHICS, AND MORALITY?
Values - pertains to beliefs and attitudes that provide direction to everyday living for the individual.
Ethics pertains to believes WE hold about what constitutes what is right about conduct (usually enforced by a group)
Morality is concerned with the perspective of right ad proper conduct and involves an evaluation of actions on a basis of some broader cultural context or religious standard.
What is the difference between ETHICS and LAWS?
ETHICS are standards that govern the conduct of professional members and designed to protect the client and ensure the counselor is taking care of themself.
LAW is the body of rules that govern affairs of people within a community and define minimum standards that society will tolerate
USUALLY, Laws will override ethics, but when in conflict with each other the counselor will have to decide which to follow based on the client's needs and the least amount of violation.
Why are ethics professionally established?
- To protect client
- Guidelines for practioners
- Clarifies professional stance
What are Community Standards (Mores)?
They vary on interdispline and theoretical and geographical basses. Community standards often become the ULTIMATE LEGAL CRITERIA for determining whether counselors are liable for damage involving malpractice.
What is the definition of mandatory ethics?
The minimum standards acknowledging the basic musts or must nots. The focus is usually on behavior rules.
What is the definition of Aspirational Ethics?
Describe the highest standards of thinking and conduct professional counselors seek. Requires more than doing or just meeting the basics.