Endocrine System

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1

paired glands suspended in the scrotum

Testes

2

Located in the anterior neck; produces key hormones for metabolism

Thyroid Gland

3

Produces the hormones that are stored in the posterior pituitary

Hypothalamus

4

A mixed gland, located behind the stomach and close to the small intestine

Pancreas

5

bilobed gland located in the sella turcica

Pituitary Gland

6

found in the pelvic cavity of the female, concerned with ova and female hormone production

Ovarie

7

found in the upper thorax overlying the heart; large during youth

Thymus gland

8

found in the rood of the third ventricle of the brain

Pineal gland

9

Define Hormones

chemical messengers

10

Define target cell

A cell that have specific receptor for that hormone to respond in a specific way

11

Stimulates hormone released by Adrenal Cortex

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

12

Secrete chemical messenger that travel in the bloodstream

Endocrine gland

13

Chemical signaling that effects neighboring cells

Paracrine

14

Release their secretion through a duct that delivers the secretion to the target location

Exocrine

15

Release their secretion into the surrounding fluid, from which it enters the bloodstream or lymph to travel to distant cells

Endocrine

16

Chemical signal that elicit a response in the same cell that secreted it

Autocrine

17

Tissues or organ that secretes hormones into the blood and lymph without ducts such that they may be transported to organs distant from the site of secretion

Endocrine Gland

18

Promotes growth of body tissues and is secreted by Anterior Pituitary gland

Growth Hormone (GH)

19

Promotes milk production and secreted by Anterior Pituitary

Prolactin (PRL)

20

Stimulates thyroid hormone release and secreted by Anterior Pituitary

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

21

Stimulates kidney to reabsorb water and is secreted by Posterior Pituitary

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

22

Stimulates uterine contractions and mammary gland cells; secreted by Posterior pituitary

Oxytocin

23

Stimulates egg and sperm production and secreted by Anterior Pituitary

Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)

24

Stimulates ovaries and testes and secreted by Anterior Pituitary

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

25

Stimulates Adrenal Cortex and secreted by Anterior Pituitary

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

26

Stimulates T-cell development and secreted by Thymus

Thymosin

27

Decrease blood glucose level and secreted by Pancreas

Insulin

28

Increase blood glucose level and secreted by pancreas

Glucagon

29

Involved in day and night cycles

Melatonin

30

Supports sperm formation and male secondary sex characteristics

Testosterone

31

Triggers the anterior pituitary to secrete hormones from Hypothalamus

Releasing hormones

32

Stimulates and maintains metabolic processes, activate T3 and secreted by Thyroid Gland

Thyroxine (T4)

33

Lowers blood calcium levels and secreted by Thyroid Gland

Calcitonin

34

Raises blood calcium level

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

35

also known as T 3 , is a thyroid hormone. It affects almost every physiological process in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, body temperature, and heart rate

Triiodothyroxine

36

blood-pressure raising hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal (medulla) gland

Epinephrine

37

similar to epinephrine in its physiological effects but acts to regulate regular physiologic activity rather than being released in response to stress. Secreted by Adrenal (medulla) gland

Norepinephrine

38

Promotes glucose synthesis, reduces inflammation, increase blood glucose

Corticosteroids

39

Stimulates uterine lining growth and development of female secondary sex characteristics

Estrogens

40

Promotes uterine lining growth

Progesterone

41

Release in response to stressors by the Adrenal Cortex

Cortisol

42

Increases blood Na+ levels and secreted by adrenal cortex

Aldosterone

43

Insulin deficit diabetes due to autoimmune disease that usually causes destruction of beta cells, and is treated with insulin replacement therapy.

Type I Diabetes Mellitus

44

non-insulin-dependent diabetes, and usually is caused by a combination of genetic/developmental predisposition, environmental factors, and lifestyle factors that lead to insulin receptors (or the 2ndmessenger systems) malfunctioning. This can also lead to beta cells becoming nonfunctional.

Type II Diabetes Mellitus

45

produces leptin and other hormones that regulate appetite and assist blood sugar regulation.

Adipose Tissue

46

caused by loss of insulin production or insulin resistance.

Diabetes Mellitus

47

Low blood sugar, causes weakness and sometimes fainting.

Hypoglycemia

48

Retain sodium and increase Blood Pressure

Mineralocorticoids

49

Promotes glucose production from fats and proteins, and suppress the immune system

Glucocorticoids

50

Hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands

Tropic Hormone

51

Enlargement of the thyroid gland, can occur due to tumors(pituitary or thyroid), and dietary deficiency of iodine (follicles swell with unusable colloid; TSH stays high).

Goiter

52

undrproducing

Hypo

53

overproducing

Hyper

54

RH stands for and is made from hypothalamus; example GHRH

Releasing hormone

55

IH stands for and is made from hypothalamus; example GHIH

Inhibiting Hormone

56

When a target cell decrease the number of receptors makings cell less sensitive to hormone

Down-Regulation

57

When a target cell increase the number of receptors making cell more sensitive to hormone

Up-Regulation

58

Hormone release caused by another hormone

Hormonal Stimulus

59

Hormone release caused by neural input

Neural Stimulus

60

The concentration of the substance when the gland regulates that triggers or inhibits release of the hormone due to altered levels

Humoral Stimulus

61

The amount that the gland can produce and the time for half of the hormone molecules to degrade(half-life)

Concetration

62

When more than one hormone produces the effect at its target cell and their combine effects implifies

Synergism

63

Situation where one hormone needs another hormone to produce its full effect

Permissiveness

64

Water soluble hormones

Peptide/Amino Acid Hormone

65

Hormone-receptor combination directly affects the cells DNA, and directly initiates or inhibits some cell function

Direct Gene Activation

66

Lipid soluble hormone

Steroid Hormone