PHARM GI DRUGS

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created 9 months ago by jessjess2601
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1

When do use laxatives?

  • To reduce painful defecation
  • Cardiovascular diseases (aneurysm, MI, increased intracranial pressure)
  • Emptying the bowel before treatment/procedure
  • Prevention of fecal impaction
  • Compensate for loss of abdominal and perineal muscle tone
2

when to NOT use laxatives?

  • Presence of abdominal pain, nausea, or cramps
  • Acute surgical abdomen
  • Fecal impaction or bowel obstruction
  • Habitual use – may have poor consequences
3

Laxatives are categorized by their mechanism of action:

  • Bulk-forming
  • surfactant
  • stimulant
  • osmotic
4

__________________ has same impact as dietary fiber

  • Increases bulk and stretches the intestinal wall stimulating peristalsis
  • Produces soft, formed stool after 1 to 3 days of use.
  • Side effects minimal but may cause abdominal cramping and bloating
  • Should be administered with a full glass of water or juice

Bulk-forming laxatives

5

Bulk-forming laxatives include:

psyllium

methylcellulose

polycarbophil

6

Surfactant laxatives Also known as____________________.

stool softeners

7

_______________ is a Surfactant laxatives, that Facilitates penetration of water into the feces by altering the surface tension

  • Produces soft stool several days after onset of treatment
  • Take with full glass of water

docusate sodium

8

_______________Irritates the bowels and increase secretion of water and ions into intestinal lumen

  • Produces a semifluid stool within 6 to 12 hours
  • Widely used but potential for abuse
  • Legitimate uses: treatment of opioid-induced constipation and treatment of constipation from slow intestinal transit

Stimulant laxatives

9

do not crush or take ______________ with milk or antacids

bisacodyl

10

Stimulant laxatives include:

bisacodyl

senna

castor oil

11

____________ causes a rapid and thorough evacuation of the bowel, do not take at bedtime

castor oil

12

_______________are Laxative salts are poorly absorbed and draws water into intestinal lumen

Osmotic laxatives

13

Types of magnesium salts :

magnesium hydroxide

magnesium citrate

magnesium sulfate

14

sodium phosphate is a _________________

sodium salt

15

These are osmotic laxatives:

magnesium salts (magnesium hydroxide, magnesium citrate, and magnesium sulfate)

sodium salt (sodium phosphate)

polyethylene glycol

Polyethylene Glycol plus Electrolytes

16

Adverse effects of osmotic laxatives:

dehydration

magnesium toxicity in renal impairment

fluid retention

acute renal failure

17

__________________________:

  • Nonabsorbable compound, retains water in the intestinal lumen
  • Adverse effects: nausea, abdominal bloating, cramping, and flatulence

polyethylene glycol (PEG)

18

___________________________:

  • Bowel cleansing solution prior to a procedure
  • Usually ingest 4L over 2-3 hrs
  • Onset 30 min, evacuates bowels within 4 hrs

Polyethylene Glycol plus Electrolytes