Hasan Zoom Session, some In class Questions Flashcards


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1

T/F: While Arterial system serves as the pressure reservoir, venous system serves as the blood volume reservoir

True

2

All of the following are true about arterioles EXCEPT:

  • Control blood flow into tissues
  • Major contributor of peripheral vascular resistance
  • Primary site of action for many anti-hypertensive drugs
  • Primary site for nutrient and gas exchange

Primary site for nutrient and gas exchange

3

Which of the following are true about aorta?

  • Transports blood to the tissues
  • Shows strong vasoconstriction and vasodilation
  • Primary site of action for many anti-hypertensive drugs
  • Has high mean arterial pressure
  • Transports blood to the tissues
  • Has high mean arterial pressure
4

Which of the following are true about venous system?

  • Low pressure system
  • Serves as blood volume reservoir
  • Primary contributor of peripheral vascular resistance
  • Small pressure increase causes large volume increase
  • Low pressure system
  • Serves as blood volume reservoir
  • Primary contributor of peripheral vascular resistance
  • Small pressure increase causes large volume increase
5

Which of the following cell-type is organized circularly around the lumen of blood vessels?

  • Endothelial cells
  • Smooth muscle cells

Smooth muscle cells

6

Which of the following cell-type is organized longitudinally along the lumen of blood vessels?

  • Endothelial cells
  • Smooth muscle cells

Endothelial cells

7

T/F: EDHF-type vasodilation is commonly seen in aorta and large arteries

happens in small arterioles... didn't catch the end of what he was saying, watch recording

8

Which of the following is incorrectly paired?

  • Vasa vasorum: arterioles
  • Smooth muscle cells: multi layers in tunica media
  • Endothelial cells: mono layer in tunica intima
  • Valves: veins

Vasa vasorum: arterioles

  • found in larger vessels ( like vena cava and aorta) to help nourish their external layer
9

T/F: Veins contain external elastic lamina

False, arteries contain the external elastic membrane

10

T/F: Tunica media has nerve fibers that regulate blood vessel diameter

True

11

Which of the following is NOT true about myoendothelial junction?

  • Electrically connect endothelial and smooth muscle cells
  • Allows for exchange of intracellular messengers and ions
  • May account for EDHF-type vasodilation
  • Present in aorta and large arteries

Present in aorta and large arteries, incorrect because they are found in small, resistance-size arteries and arterioles

12

Which of the following is NOT true about vascular smooth muscle contraction?

  • Na+ influx stimulates depolarization, leading to vasoconstriction
  • Cl- efflux stimulates depolarization, leading to vasoconstriction
  • K+ efflux inhibits depolarization, leading to vasodilation
  • Cl- efflux inhibits depolarization, leading to vasodilation

Cl- efflux inhibits depolarization, leading to vasodilation >> incorrect because stimulates depolarization which causes contraction

13

All of the following are true about vascular smooth muscle contraction except:

  • Ca2+ influx and rise of intracellular Ca2+ activates MLCK
  • Activation of MLCK stimulates vasoconstriction
  • Inhibition of MLCK promotes vasodilation
  • Activation of MLCP stimulates vasodilation
  • Inhibition of MLCP promotes vasodilation

Inhibition of MLCP promotes vasodilation>> causes vasoconstriction

14

T/F: Opening of arterial smooth muscle cell Cl - ion channels and Cl - efflux stimulates vasodilation

False; depolarization which causes vasoconstriction

15

Which of the following are true about capillaries and venules?

  • Capillaries contain single layer of endothelial and smooth muscle cells
  • Capillaries allow nutrient and gas exchange
  • Capillaries lead to venules
  • Venules merge to form veins
  1. Capillaries allow nutrient and gas exchange
  2. Capillaries lead to venules
  3. Venules merge to form veins
16

Which of the following is not correctly paired?

  • Continuous capillaries: most common, tight intercellular junctions
  • Continuous capillaries: complete basement membrane
  • Fenestrated capillaries: porous, tight intercellular junctions
  • Sinusoid capillaries: least common, large intercellular gaps
  • Sinusoid capillaries: complete basement membrane

Sinusoid capillaries: complete basement membrane>> incomplete basement membranes

17

All of the following are features of microcirculation except:

  • Diffusion is the primary driving force
  • Concentration gradient enhances diffusion
  • O2 and CO2 diffuse through capillary membrane
  • Glucose diffuses through capillary membrane

Glucose diffuses through capillary membrane

18

T/F: Sinusoid capillary is the least common capillary, with incomplete basement membrane

True

19

T/F: Mean capillary pressure is 17 mmHg

true; low pressure allows for the transfer of material to tissue from arteries and removal of waste from tissues into venules

20

T/F: Pumping of blood from right ventricle into pulmonary circulation causes a drop in right atrial pressure, which enhances venous return

true

21

During inhalation which of the following enhances venous return?

  • Lowering of diaphragm causes a drop in pressure in the chest, which lowers right atrial pressure, resulting in an increase in venous return
  • Lowering of diaphragm increases pressure in the abdomen, which enhances venous pressure, resulting in an increase in venous return

BOTH

22

T/F: Sympathetic nerve activity causes moderate contraction of endothelial cells

False; they don't contract

23

All of the following are true about blood vessel structure and function except:

  • Veins are more distensible than arteries
  • Compliance is a feature of aorta and large arteries
  • Resistance is a feature of small arteries and arterioles
  • Damping of pressure pulses = compliance x distensibility

Damping of pressure pulses = compliance x distensibility; damping = compliance x resistance

24

All of the following are true about blood flow except:

  • Flow increases as the radius of the vessel increases
  • Flow increases as the length of the vessel increases
  • Flow decreases as the length of the vessel increases
  • Flow decreases as the viscosity of the blood increases

Flow increases as the length of the vessel increases; flow is directly proportional to radius and pressure BUT inversely related to length and viscosity

25

T/F: Individuals with polycythemia have higher blood viscosity, that may lead to slower flow

True

26

T/F: Individuals with anemia have lower blood viscosity, that may lead to slower flow

false

27

Which one of the following statements about the vasodilator theory of autoregulation of tissue blood flow is correct?

  • Increased oxygen in the blood decreases contraction of pre-capillary sphincters
  • Increased oxygen in tissue causes the tissue to release vasodilators
  • Decreased oxygen in tissue causes vasoconstriction
  • Decreased oxygen in tissue causes the release of vasodilators

Decreased oxygen in tissue causes the release of vasodilators

28

Arteriolar resistance during intense exercise is decreased by which of the following mechanisms?

  • Vasodilator theory
  • Oxygen lack theory
  • Myogenic theory
  • Angiogenesis
  1. Vasodilator theory
  2. Oxygen lack theory
29

Which one of the following statements about the myogenic theory of autoregulation of tissue blood flow is correct? Select all that apply

  • Myogenic response is intrinsic to small diameter arteries and arterioles
  • Intraluminal pressure controls activity of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels to regulate vessel diameter
  • Myogenic response is mediated by smooth muscle cells
  • Endothelial cells sense high intraluminal pressure and contract to reduce arterial diameter
  1. Myogenic response is intrinsic to small diameter arteries and arterioles
  2. Intraluminal pressure controls activity of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels to regulate vessel diameter
  3. Myogenic response is mediated by smooth muscle cells
  4. Endothelial cells sense high intraluminal pressure and contract to reduce arterial diameter endothelial cells do not contracttttt
30

All of the following mediates endothelium-dependent vasodilation except:

  • NO
  • PGI2
  • SKCa and IKCa K+ channels
  • TXA2

TXA2 (Thromboxane) is a constrictor

31

All of the following mediates endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction except:

  • Endothelin 1
  • TXA2
  • PGI2
  • Superoxide

PGI2 is a dilator

32

All of the following are true about the long-term control of blood flow except

  • Alters vessel number and size
  • Creates alternate flow pathways
  • May cause long-term reduction in vascular pressure
  • Unable to meet long-term metabolic needs of the tissues

Unable to meet long-term metabolic needs of the tissues

33

What are the pathophysiological consequences of RAAS activation?

  • Enhances SNS Activation
  • Cardiovascular remodeling
  • Enhanced salt and water retention
  • Enhanced Chemoreceptor Activation
  • Enhances SNS Activation
  • Cardiovascular remodeling
  • Enhanced salt and water retention
34
card image

B, C, D

35

An isolated coronary artery has a baseline diameter of 200 μm at 10 mmHg. When pressurized to 40 mmHg, the diameter increased to 240 μm. However, increasing the pressure to 80 mmHg reduced the diameter to 170 μm. At 80mmHg, application of 1 μM acetylcholine constricted the artery from 170 μm to 140 μm. However, at 80mmHg, application of 1 μM sodium nitroprusside (a NO donor) dilated the artery from 170 μm to 210 μm.

A. Increasing intraluminal pressure to 80 mmHg stimulated sympathetic nerve activity leading to vasoconstriction. Acetylcholine enhanced endothelin-1 (ET-1) production from endothelial cells and subsequent ET-1 action on smooth muscle cells caused further constriction of the artery to 140μm.

B. Increasing intraluminal pressure to 80 mmHg caused endothelial injury and ET-1 production, leading to vasoconstriction at 80 mmHg. Acetylcholine application further enhanced endothelin-1 (ET-1) production and smooth muscle contraction, leading to further constriction of the artery to 140μm.

C. Increasing pressure to 80 mmHg stimulates Ca2+ influx into the smooth muscle cells leading to vasoconstriction. Acetylcholine action on smooth muscle cell muscarinic M3 receptor (Gq11- coupled) elicited smooth muscle cell contraction, leading to further constriction of the artery to 140 μm.

D. Pressurization to 80 mmHg stimulates myogenic vasoconstriction. Acetylcholine-mediated vasoconstriction reflects endothelial dysfunction in which M3 receptors on endothelial cells are unable to produce NO and vasodilation. In the absence of NO, acetylcholine binding to smooth muscle cell M3 receptor stimulated vasoconstriction.

C. Increasing pressure to 80 mmHg stimulates Ca2+ influx into the smooth muscle cells leading to vasoconstriction. Acetylcholine action on smooth muscle cell muscarinic M3 receptor (Gq11- coupled) elicited smooth muscle cell contraction, leading to further constriction of the artery to 140 μm.

D. Pressurization to 80 mmHg stimulates myogenic vasoconstriction. Acetylcholine-mediated vasoconstriction reflects endothelial dysfunction in which M3 receptors on endothelial cells are unable to produce NO and vasodilation. In the absence of NO, acetylcholine binding to smooth muscle cell M3 receptor stimulated vasoconstriction.

36

Which of the following is incorrect about sympathetic innervation to heart and vasculatures?:

A.Sympathetic innervation causes constriction of arterioles

B.Capillaries and venules lack sympathetic innervations

C.Heart lacks sympathetic innervations

D.Precapillary sphincters and some metarterioles lack sympathetic innervation

Heart lacks sympathetic innervations

37

Q. Which of the following effects is consistent with the action of parasympathetic nervous system?

A.Increased vasoconstriction

B.Increased heart rate

C.Increased pulmonary pressure

D.Decreased heart rate

E.Increased venous return

Decreased heart rate

38

Q. Which of the following is/are true about the vasomotor system?

A.Neurons of vasoconstrictor area excite preganglionic vasoconstrictor neurons

B.Neurons of vasoconstrictor area enhance sympathetic outflow to the periphery

C.Neurons of vasodilator area project upward to the vasoconstrictor area

D.Sympathetic control of heart occurs through the vasoconstrictor area

E.Sensory area receives signals from the circulatory system in the periphery

F.All of the above

all

39

Q. Which of the following is/are true about the baroreceptor reflex?

A.Maintains rapid moment-to-moment control of blood pressure

B.Baroreceptors are activated by pressure increases

C.Increased baroreceptor stimulation inhibits the vasomotor center

D.Carotid baroreceptors are more important for blood pressure regulation

E.Baroreceptors slow the development of hypertension

A. Maintains rapid moment-to-moment control of blood pressure

B.Baroreceptors are activated by pressure increases

C.Increased baroreceptor stimulation inhibits the vasomotor center

D.Carotid baroreceptors are more important for blood pressure regulation

40

Q. All of the following is true about baroreceptor reflex in hypotension except:

A.Baroreceptors are inhibited

B.Fewer baroreceptor impulses in the CNS stimulate the vasomotor center

C.Increased baroreceptor impulses in the CNS inhibits the vasomotor center

D.Enhances sympathetic outflow of the periphery

E.Increased cardiac output and vascular resistance bring BP back to normal

Increased baroreceptor impulses in the CNS inhibits the vasomotor center

41

Q. All of the following is true about the chemoreceptor reflex except:

A.Chemoreceptors sense O2 lack, CO2 excess and pH drop

B.Poor cerebral perfusion and impaired lung function stimulate chemoreceptor reflex

C.There is a chemoreceptor overdrive in hypertension

D. Activation of chemoreceptor reflex inhibits the vasomotor center

Activation of chemoreceptor reflex inhibits the vasomotor center

42

Q. Which of the following is NOT true about the CNS ischemic response?

A.Reduced cerebral blood flow activates the CNS ischemic response

B.CNS ischemic response produces strong vasoconstriction in the periphery

C.Causes profound suppression of the vasomotor center

D. Gets activated when the blood pressure falls below 60mmHg

Causes profound suppression of the vasomotor center

43

Q. What explains how Gq11-coupled receptors for vasoconstrictors work in vascular smooth muscle? Select all that apply.

A.Produces IP3 and mobilizes Ca2+ from intracellular stores

B.Stimulates MLCK

C.Stimulates cAMP production and PKA, which activates MLCK

D. Inhibits MLCP via stimulating Rho kinase

A.Produces IP3 and mobilizes Ca2+ from intracellular stores

B.Stimulates MLCK

44

Q. What explains how Gi-coupled α2 receptor causes vascular smooth muscle contraction?

A.Stimulates cAMP production and PKA

B.Inhibits cAMP production and PKA

C.Inhibits MLCP via Rho kinase

D.Stimulates MLCP via cGMP and PKG

B.Inhibits cAMP production and PKA

45

Q. What explains how Gs-coupled β2 receptors relax vascular smooth muscle? Select all that apply.

A.Stimulate cAMP production and PKA

B.PKA inactivates MLCK

C.Inhibit MLCP via Rho kinase

D.Stimulate MLCP via cGMP and PKG

A.Stimulate cAMP production and PKA

B.PKA inactivates MLCK

46

Q. What explains how stimulation of bradykinin B2 receptors causes vasodilation? Select all that apply.

A.Stimulates IP3 production and intracellular Ca2+release

B.Stimulates PLA2 via enhancing [Ca2+]i

C.Stimulates NO production

D.Stimulates PGI2 production

all

47

Q. Select the best answer as it related to baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflex.

A.Chemoreceptors are stimulated when they sense an increase of O2 while baroreceptors are stimulated by a decrease in arterial pressure

B.Chemoreceptors are stimulated by an increase in O2 while baroreceptors respond to a decrease in CO2

C.Both baroreceptors and chemoreceptors are activated by an increase in arterial pressure

D.Baroreceptors respond to an increase in arterial pressure while chemoreceptors respond to a lack of O2

Baroreceptors respond to an increase in arterial pressure while chemoreceptors respond to a lack of O2

48

Q. Endothelin 1 and NO have direct effect on:

A.Heart rate

B.Stroke volume

C.Peripheral resistance

D.Cardiac output

C.Peripheral resistance

49

Q. All of the following is true about adrenergic receptor function except:

A.α1 - vasoconstriction of blood vessels

B.α2 - inhibition of NE release

C.β1 - renin release

D.β2 - cardiac stimulation

D.β2 - cardiac stimulation

50

Q. Select the correct sequence of signaling events in vascular smooth muscle cells that lead to vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Select all that apply.

A.Ang II → AT1 → Gs → PKA →↑MLCK → Vasoconstriction

B.PGF2α → Gq12/13 → Rho Kinase → ↑MLCP → Vasodilation

C.NO → cGMP → PKG → ↑MLCP → Vasodilation

D.Epi → β2 → Gs → PKA → ↓MLCK → Vasodilation

C.NO → cGMP → PKG → ↑MLCP → Vasodilation

D.Epi → β2 → Gs → PKA → ↓MLCK → Vasodilation

51

Q. What explains the mechanism of action of aldosterone to elevate blood pressure?

A.By enhancing renal sodium and water retention

B.By promoting systemic vasodilation

C.By decreasing blood volume

D.All of the above

A.By enhancing renal sodium and water retention

52

Q. Which of the following components are affected by RAAS activation? Select all that apply.

A.Stroke volume

B.Peripheral resistance

C.Cardiac output

D.Mean arterial pressure

ALL

53

Q. Select the best statement(s) as it relates to the development of hypertension

A.Endothelial NO production is increased

B.Endothelial ET-1 production is increased

C.SNS activity is increased

D.Chemoreceptor drive is increased

B.Endothelial ET-1 production is increased

C.SNS activity is increased

D.Chemoreceptor drive is increased