Cardio Lecture 2: Heart Anatomy (Finished) Flashcards


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1

Size of the heart is a function of the size of what?

The size of the person

2

Approximate dimensions of the heart?

5" long and 3.5" wide

3

The heart mass is a function of what?

The person's size, gender, age and contitioning

4

Approximate heart mass?

9 to 12 oz

5

Would the heart of an athlete weight more or less than an elderly individual and why?

MORE, because it is more muscular

6
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Where is the heart positioned?

Thoracic cavity, AKA the mediastinum

7
  • The _________ are located to the immediate right and left of the heart.
  • the __________ is anterior to the heart.
  • The __________ is posterior to the heart.
  • The ____________ is inferior to the heart.
  • Lungs
  • Sternum
  • Spine
  • Diaphragm
8

Which direction(s) does the apex point?

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Inferiorly, anteriorly and to the left

9

Define the "Long axis of the heart"

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The distance from the LV to the root of the aorta

10

How many heart borders are there and what are their names?

  1. Superior Border
  2. Left Border
  3. Inferior Border
  4. Right Border
11

What makes up the Superior Borde r?

Right and Left Atrium

12

What makes up the Left Border?

Primarily the Left Ventricle, some Left Atrium

13

What makes up the Inferior Border?

Primarily the Right Ventricle, some Left Ventricle near the Apex

**This side is almost horizontal

14

What makes up the Right Border?

Right Atrium in a straight line with the superior and inferior Venae Cava

15

The Heart and roots of the great vessels are enveloped by the....

Pericardium

16

Describe the pericardium

A fibrous sac that folds on itself and contains a thin film of fluid called the serous fluid or pericardial fluid

17

Functional roles of the pericardium (4):

  1. Extra layers of protection
  2. Structural anchoring to neighboring structures
  3. Viscous fluid reduces frictional forces
  4. Constrains the amount of blood filling
18

Components of the heart Wall Structure

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  1. Endocardium
  2. Myocardium
  3. Epicardium
19

Endocardium

  • Simple Squamous epithelium
  • Lines the inner chambers of the heart as well as the valve
  • Indistinguishable from the lining of the blood vessels
  • Smooth, sponge-like appearance, interlaced with trabecular carnae
20

Myocardium

  • Cardiac myocytes from the contractile layer for the ejection of blood
  • Divided into the subendocardial and subepicardial areas
21

Sarcomeres

Contractile units of muscle with specific arrangements of the proteins Myosin, actin and troponin

22

Epicardium

  • Serous membrane on the outside of the middle layer of the heart
  • Synonymous with the visceral pericardium
  • Squamous epithelial cells that overlay connective tissues
23

What makes up the 4 Chambers of the heart?

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  1. Right Atrium
  2. Left Atrium
  3. Right Ventricle
  4. Left Ventricle
24

Partitioning of the heart chambers involves what two septum?

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  • Interatrial septum
  • Interventricular septum
25

The septum separating the RA from the LA has a shallow depression called the......

Fossa Ovalis

In the fetal heart this is where there was an opening called the foramen ovale

26

What direction is the Interventricular septum pushed to and why?

Due to pressure differences between the LV and RV, the inter ventricular septum is pushed to the RIGHT

27

Heart Features: Right Atrium

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  • Thin wall (2-3mm)
  • Pressure ranges from 2-8 mm Hg during filled and contraction
  • ~10% of the blood in the normal heart @ rest is delivered via Atrial contraction (AKA Atrial Kick), 40% during exertion
28

Heart Features: Right Ventricle

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  • Thicker than Atrium (3-4mm)
  • Pressure ranges from 2-8 mmHg during PASSIVE FILLING
  • Pressure increases to 15-30mmHg during CONTRACTION/Ventricular systole
  • Inner wall of the outflow track is smooth, other parts are sponge-like with irregular projections (trabeculae carnae)
29

Heart Features: Left Atrium

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  • Thin wall ~2-3mm
  • Pressure ranges from 2-10 mmHg
30

Heart Features: Left Ventricle

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  • Three times thicker than the RV(9-11mm)
  • Cone-shaped during diastole and Spheroid during systole
  • 3-12mmHg during Filling phase and 100-140mmHg during contraction/ventricular systole
  • Inner wall of the outflow track is smooth, other parts are sponge-like with irregular projections that are finer but more in number than the RV
31

Name 4 Septal Defects

  1. Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
  2. Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO)
  3. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
  4. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)
32

Describe Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO)

When the flap-like opening in the septum between the RA and LA in a fetus does not close after birth; 25% of the population

33

Describe Atrial Fibrilation

  • Disorganized electrical conduction pathways in the atria
  • Leads to less efficient pumping
  • Causes the blood to stagnate >> leading to clotting >>> majority of these clots are formed in the left atrial appendage
  • Stroke is a major risk factor
34

AFib treatment options

  • Anticoags
  • Ablation
  • Surgery/Implantable devices
35

Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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Dilated LV with minimal hypertrophy

36

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

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Marked LV Hypertrophy

37

Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

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Infiltrated or fibrotic LV

No longer flexible; restrictive & cannot expand as it should

38

Describe the heart valves

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  • 4 total = 2 inlet and 2 outlet
  • Open and close to give UNIDIRECTIONAL flow of the blood WITHOUT BACKFLOW
  • Attached to fibrous cardiac skeleton.
39

Inlet Valves are the .....

Atrioventricular Valves; separate the atria and ventricles

40

What makes up the Atrioventricular Valves?

  • Tricuspid Valve
  • Mitral (Bicuspid) Valve

Connected by the "heart strings" to the papillary muscles

41

Outlet Valves are the....

Semilunar Valves; separate the ventricles from the great arteries

42

What makes up the Semilunar Valves?

  • Pulmonic Valve
  • Aortic Valve
43

What is stenosis?

Obstruction of valve leading to decrease in forward blood flow

44

What is insufficiency?

Leaky Valve leading to backflow of blood

valve does not completely close; regurgitation

45

Describe blood flow velocity within a closed flow stream

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The volume flow rate at Point 1 is equal to the volume flow rate at point 2

46

Describe blood flow velocity within an area that is narrowed

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The velocity must increase in order to have the same volume flow

**Point 2

47

Consequences of Aortic stenosis (3)

  • Elevated LV pressures
  • Secondary Ventricular Hypertrophy
  • Murmur
48

What are the two NORMAL Heart sounds heard in the normal adult heart?

  • Lub = S1
  • Dub = S2
49

Describe the First Heart Sound (S1)

Result of Mitral and Tricuspid valves closing at the beginning of systole

50

Describe the Second Heart Sound (S2)

Result of Aortic and Pulmonic Valves closing at the beginning of diastole

51

What are the 2 components of the Second Heart Sound?

A2 and P2

52

Major Coronary Arteries of the Heart? (5)

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