Vehicle: Flashcards


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1

Hours of darkness

Only one third of all driving is done at night, more than half of all fatal crashes occur during _________

2

Reaction distance

Reaction time remains the same, day or night. But, lack of light increases the time required to observe a hazard

3

Field of vision

At night, peripheral vision decreases, less light narrows the field of vision

4

Loss of visual cues

At night it is easy to lose visual cues, available during the day, which lowers the ability to judge distance

5

Glare

Glare from oncoming drivers can temporarily blind a driver, human eyes adjust to the lack of light and use night vision. Needs time to readjust with sudden light changes

6

Emergency lights

When driving in emergency mode, emergency lights can increase the amount of glare encountered

7

You can use these techniques to improve your vision while driving at night:

  1. looking off to the shoulder of the roadway to protect night vision while using the white line at the edge of the road for guidance
  2. dimming the headlights for oncoming traffic to reduce glare
  3. using low beams while driving in fog or smoke during the fat or night
  4. reduce glare by controlling all interior lights

8

When drivers are backing up

Many crashes occur when?

9

An officers safety skill

The ability to back a vehicle safely out of a particular location or situation is _______

10

Driven slowly to compensate for an increase in weight transfer and a decrease in the driver’s field of vision

In reverse, the vehicle should be ______

11

The rear brakes

_______ handle a great amount of weight transfer while driving in reverse, are not as efficient as the front brakes

12

Less steering input to produce a larger change in direction

Driving in reverse requires what?

13

Entering an intersection safely and properly at normal driving speeds and making a 90 degree turn to the right or left

Cornering requires what?

14

Depends on traction

Control of a vehicle depends on what?

15

Traction is

The result of the friction a vehicles tires create on the road surface.

16

What is rolling friction?

When the tires constantly rotate on the road surface without losing contact

17

What is a skid?

Results when the wheels lock and do not turn while the vehicle is moving. Both rolling friction and traction are lost

18

What is a slide?

The wheels of a vehicle still rotate but they do not control the vehicles movement. Both rolling friction and traction are lost

19

It may hydroplane, slide, or skid

When a vehicle rides on top of water on the roadway ________

20

What is counter steering?

Results when you turn the vehicles front tires in the direction you want to go, to retain traction

21

Proper acceleration is best done when?

In a smooth, straight line using steady pressure

22

What is an Incipient skid? (Braking)

Happens just before the tires lose traction during braking

23

Anti lock blacking system (ABS) does what?

This system electronically prevents the wheels from locking by rapidly applying and releasing the brake while allowing the driver to remain in control

24

To stop a vehicle equipped with ABS ____

Quickly apply the brakes hard, to engage the ABS. You will feel the brake pedal pulsing

25

What is eye targeting?

Looking in the desired direction of travel to avoid an obstacle and to avoid steering in the direction of the obstacle

26

The caster effect is ______

The tendency for a vehicle traveling forward to straighten from a turn when the driver releases the steering wheel

27

The Florida Safety Belt Law requires _______

The driver and anyone 18 or older who is a passenger in the front seat must be restrained by a safety belt

28

Steering wheel grip happens when ____

You hold the steering wheel with a firm yet relaxed grip

29

When facing the steering wheel ____

The top center of the wheel is in the 12 o’clock position. It is recommended that you place your right hand in the 4 o'clock position and your left hand in the 8 o’clock position

30

Perform the shuffle steering technique to ___

Make a right turn and a left turn. Driving in reverse does not involve shuffle steering

31

What is wheel tracking?

Causes the rear wheels to follow a tighter path than the path the front wheels traveled in a turn (rear wheel tire tracking will never match front wheel tire tracking because rear tires do not steer)

32

What is an understeer?

Happens wash a vehicle turns less sharply than the driver intends, may be a combination of excessive speed, lack of traction, and improper braking

33

A constant radius is _____

Is a turn that remains the same throughout, getting neither wider nor smaller

34

An apex is ___

The center point in any curve

35

The early apexing technique is ___

When a vehicle is steered so it is closest to the inside of a curve

36

The center apexing technique is ___

When a vehicle is steered closest to the middle of the curve

37

The late apexing technique is ___

When a vehicle is steered so it passes closest to the inside of the curve after reaching the apex.
(this technique decreases centrifugal force, reducing the potential for loss of control)
- late apex is the best cornering or turning method

38

Centripetal force is __

The force that keeps a vehicle moving in a curved path and is directed INWARD towards the center of rotation

39

Centrifugal force is ___

The force that keeps a vehicle moving in a curved path and is directed OUTWARDLY away from the center of rotation

40

Steering has a direct relationship with what?

Vehicle dynamics, vehicle handling, and traction control

41

A radius is __

The distance from the center of a circle to the outside

42

What is an increasing radius?

A turn that gets wider during the turn, much like a curve getting larger

43

What is a decreasing radius?

A turn that gets tighter during the turn, much like a circle getting smaller

44

The tires of most law enforcement vehicles rest on ___

Four, 6 inch squares

45

Pitch occurs during __

Acceleration or braking and causes the transfer of a vehicles weight from front to rear or rear to front

46

What is a yaw?

The transfer of a vehicles weight causing an end for end motion, resulting in the vehicle turning 180 degree on a horizontal plane

47

When a vehicle turns a corner ___

Eight transfers towards the tires on the outside of the turn

48

Always brake before ___

Turning, and then steer into the turn

49

Two second rule:

Establishes a minimum safe following distance for all vehicles and provides space and time for the driver to react to potential hazards (applies at the posted speed limit when weather and road conditions are good)

50

Four second rule:

Four seconds are counted after the vehicle ahead passes a fixed object (situations include traveling at higher than normal rates of speed, driving during emergency responses, or traveling with other responding units)

51

Frequently occurring crashes:

  1. Sideswipes
  2. right angle collisions
  3. collisions with fixed objects
  4. accidents caused by improper backing
  5. head on collisions
  6. rear end collisions

52

May require officers to handle some problems themselves such as __

Changing a tire or a bulb, or adding fluids, or to notify a particular shop that will repair the vehicle

53

It is essential to __

Inspect a vehicle before taking control of it and operating it on the road. You will drive your vehicle in extreme conditions.

54

For personal safety __

Perform inspections before and after every use of the vehicle

55

Before using a vehicle, inspect ___

It’s body to identify any damage

56

Tires should be checked for ___

Uneven wear that may result from improper balance or alignment, over inflation or under inflation

57

Cuts in a tire can?

Also cause a blowout and should be observed and addressed

58

If the front tire fails ____

The vehicle may lose traction

59

If the rear tire fails ___

The vehicle may lose traction and pull in an unpredictable direction

60

Fluid levels you should check:

  1. Engine oil
  2. transmission fluid
  3. brake fluid
  4. power steering fluid
  5. coolant reservoir
  6. windshield washer fluid

61

Belts should be checked for what?

Fraying, cuts, cracks and gouges

62

Before and after every shift and after every transport ___

Check under the back seat for possible weapons or contraband a suspect may have left

63

Enhanced observation and driving skills ___

Will help you when driving agency vehicles and carrying out your duties

64

To prevent accidents:

  1. Scan FAR enough ahead to be able to react safely
  2. scan FREQUENTLY to the side and rear
  3. Scan THOROUGHLY before changing speed or direction

65

Vision supplies about ____

90% to 95% of incoming data to a driver

66

Depth perception:

Ability to judge distance and perceive space

67

Peripheral vision:

Ability to see above, below, and to the sides

68

Color vision:

Ability to distinguish colors

69

Night vision:

Ability to see clearly in darkness

70

Factors that affect vision?

Environmental, physical conditions, alertness and aging

71

If they steering wheel pulls in one direction __

The vehicle may have an alignment problem

72

When you cannot avoid striking or driving over an obstacle ___

Try to strike it at a slight angle with free rolling tires

73

When you see fluid on the road ___

Slow down and try to avoid driving over or through the hazard

74

Acuity:

Sharpness of vision

75

Check wires for ____

Fraying, corrosion, cracked or missing insulation and exposure

76

Tire inflation is measured by _____

PSI, pounds per square inch

77

During an inspection you will check __

Proper fluid levels, hoses, electrical wiring, belts and tires

78

Roll occurs when __

The vehicle is turning, this shifts the vehicles weight from side to side

79

What is an oversteer?

Happens when the vehicles steers into a sharper turn than the driver intends, sometimes with a loss of traction . Generally occurs at high speeds

80

What is an incipient spin? (Acceleration)

Occurs Judy before the drive tires lose traction during acceleration