The blood vessels Flashcards


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created 2 years ago by Renata_SidorukSoƂoducha
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https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/organ-systems/the-circulatory-system/v/layers-of-a-blood-vessel https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/organ-systems/the-circulatory-system/v/arteries-vs-veins-what-s-the-difference https://www.abpischools.org.uk/topic/heartandcirculation/5/1
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1

Circulatory system

The body system responsible for carrying blood, nutrients, and waste throughout the body

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Cardiac

Related to the heart

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The structure of an artery, a vein and a capillary

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Pulmonary

Related to the lungs

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This is known as the pulse.

In some places in the body the arteries are relatively near the surface.

In these places you can feel the bulge as blood is forced out of the heart into the arteries followed by the return to normal shape.

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Diagram of pulse points on the body

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Valves prevent a backflow of blood in the veins

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It is in the capillaries that the exchange of substances takes place between the blood and the cells. The capillaries provide a massive surface area and thin walls for easy diffusion.

Dissolved food and oxygen move out of the blood into the cells down a concentration gradient by diffusion. Carbon dioxide and urea move out of the cells into the blood in the same way.

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Blood moves from the arteries into the capillary network and then into the veins

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The blood pumped out of the heart is carried around the body in a 75000 mile long transport network of blood vessels. There are three main types of blood vessels

the arteries, the veins and the capillaries.

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Arteries and veins of the body

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Arteries

  • carry blood away from the heart
  • in most arteries blood is bright red and oxygenated
  • stretch as the blood is forced through them and go back into shape afterwards (have a pulse)
  • have thick walls to withstand the pressure of the blood

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Veins

  • carry blood towards the heart
  • in most veins the blood is deep purple red and deoxygenated
  • no pulse
  • often have valves to prevent backflow of blood
  • much thinner walls as much lower pressure

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Capillaries

  • huge network of tiny vessels linking arteries with veins
  • narrow - often one red blood cell wide
  • very thin walls one cell thick to allow diffusion of substances into and out of the blood

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The main artery of the systemic circuit is

the aorta which branches out into other arteries, carrying blood to different parts of the body.