Infectious Disease I Exam 1 Part 1 Flashcards


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1

Bacteria can be subdivided into what main 2 categories?

  • Aerobic
  • Anaerobic

2

Bacteria that grow well in oxygen-rich environments are known as what?

aerobes

3

Bacteria that grow well in oxygen-depleting environments are known as what?

anaerobes

4

The presence of bacteria without signs or symptoms of infection is known as what?

colonization

5

Presence of bacteria WITH signs and symptoms of infection (fever, elevated WBC, pain, etc) is known as what?

infection

6

Determining what bacterial pathogens are likely given the site of infection is known as what treatment?

empiric

7

Sending samples to the microbiology lab for culture and susceptibility testing is known as what treatment?

definitive

8

List the sterile sites in the body that could be sampled for collection:

  • Bladder/Kidneys
  • Lungs
  • Blood
  • Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)
  • Joint fluid
  • Peritoneal cavity

9

List the sites in the body with normal microbiota that could be sampled for collection:

  • Skin
  • Gastrointestinal tract (mouth to colon)
  • Vagina
  • Wounds

10

Which beta-lactam antibiotics are used in the treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa?

  • Cephalosporins
  • Penicillins
  • Carbapenems

11

Which antibiotic class can be used in patients with allergies to beta-lactams to treat pseudomonas aeruginosa?

Monobactam

12

Which cephalosporins are used in the treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa?

  • Ceftazidime
  • Cefepime
  • Ceftazidime/avibactam
  • Ceftolozane/tazobactam
  • Cefiderocol

13

What is the brand name of Ceftazidime?

Fortaz

14

What is the brand name of Cefepime?

Maxipime

15

What is the brand name of Ceftazidime/avibactam?

Avycaz

16

What is the brand name of Ceftolozane/tazobactam?

Zerbaxa

17

What is the brand name of Cefiderocol?

Fetroja

18

Which cephalosporin used to treat pseudomonas aeruginosa is a 3rd generation cephalosporin?

Ceftazidime (Fortaz)

19

Which cephalosporin used to treat pseudomonas aeruginosa is a 4th generation cephalosporin?

Cefepime (Maxipime)

20

Which penicillins are used in the treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa?

  • Piperacilllin/tazobactam
  • Ticarcillin/clavulanate

21

What is the brand name of Piperacilllin/tazobactam?

Zosyn

22

What is the brand name of Ticarcillin/clavulanate?

Timentin

23

What are the carbapenems used in the treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa?

  • Imipenem/cilastatin
  • Meropenem
  • Meropenem/vaborbactam
  • Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam
  • Doripenem

24

What is the brand name of imipenem/cilastatin?

Primaxin

25

What is the brand name of Meropenem?

Merrem

26

What is the brand name of meropenem/vaborbactam?

Vabomere

27

What is the brand name of Doripenem?

Doribax

28

What is the brand name of imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam?

Recarbio

29

Which drug used in the treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa belongs to the monobactam class?

Aztreonam

30

What are some brand names of Aztreonam?

  • Azactam
  • Cayston

31

Monobactams can be used in patients with allergies to betalactams except with what allergies?

ceftazidime

32

What are some non-beta lactams used in the treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa?

  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Polymyxins

33

What are some fluoroquinolones used in the treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa?

  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Levofloxacin
  • Delafloxacin

34

What is the brand name of ciprofloxacin?

Cipro

35

What is the brand name of levofloxacin?

Levaquin

36

What is the brand name of delafloxacin?

Baxdela

37

What are some aminoglycosides used in the treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa?

  • Amikacin
  • Gentamicin
  • Tobramycin

38

What is the brand name of amikacin?

Amikin

39

What is the brand name of gentamicin?

Garamycin

40

What are some brand names of tobramycin?

  • Nebicin
  • TOBI

41

What are some polymyxins used in the treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa?

  • Colistin (Polymyxin E)
  • Polymyxin B

42

What are some brand names of colistin?

  • Colomycin
  • Coly-Mycin m

43

List some common antibiotic classes used in the treatment of HA-MRSA:

  • Cephalosporins
  • Glycopeptides
  • Oxolidinones
  • Glycylcycline
  • Streptogramin
  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Lipopeptide
  • Tetracycline derivatives

44

Which cephalosporin can be used in the treatment of HA-MRSA?

Ceftaroline

45

What is the brand name of Ceftaroline?

Teflaro

46

List some common glycopeptide antibiotics used in the treatment of HA-MRSA:

  • Vancomycin
  • Televancin
  • Dalbavancin
  • Oritavancin

47

What is the brand name of vancomycin?

Vancocin

48

What is the brand name of televancin?

Vibactiv

49

What is the brand name of dalbavancin?

Dalvance

50

What is the brand name of oritavancin?

Orbactiv

51

List some oxolidinones used in the treatment of HA-MRSA:

  • Linezolid
  • Tedizolid

52

What is the brand name of linezolid?

Zyvox

53

What is the brand name of tedizolid?

Sivextro

54

Which Glycylcycline is used in the treatment of HA-MRSA?

Tigecycline

55

What is the brand name of Tigecycline?

Tygacil

56

Which streptogramin is used in the treatment of MRSA?

Quinupristin/dalfopristin

57

Which fluoroquinolone is used in the treatment of HA-MRSA?

Delafloxacin

58

What is the brand name of Delafloxacin?

Baxdela

59

Which lipopeptide is used in the treatment of HA-MRSA?

Daptomycin

60

What is the brand name of Daptomycin?

Cubicin

61

What are some tetracycline derivatives used in the treatment of HA-MRSA?

  • Omadacycline
  • Eravacycline

62

What is the brand name of omadacycline?

Nuzyra

63

What is the brand name of eravacycline?

Xerava

64

In the treatment of CA-MRSA, agents that cover HA-MRSA can be used PLUS which other agents?

  • Clindamycin
  • Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole
  • Tetracyclines

65

What is the brand name of clindamycin?

Cleocin

66

What is the brand name of Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole?

Bactrim

67

What are some tetracyclines used in addition of HA-MRSA treatment to treat CA-MRSA?

  • Doxycycline
  • Monocycline

68

Clindamycin (Cleocin) may be used to treat CA-MRSA pending what test result?

D-test result

69

What are the steps for processing a microbiology sample?

  1. Collect the sample (urine, blood, sputum, nasal/oral, stool, CSF)
  2. Send it to microbiology lab
  3. ID the organism (Gram stain + other tests)
  4. Antibiotic susceptibility testing

70

Does the CSF contain normal microbiota or is it sterile?

sterile

71

Does the upper respiratory tract contain normal microbiota or is it sterile?

normal microbiota

72

Does the lower respiratory tract contain normal microbiota or is it sterile?

sterile

73

Does the blood contain normal microbiota or is it sterile?

sterile

74

Does the skin contain normal microbiota or is it sterile?

normal microbiota

75

Does the colon contain normal microbiota or is it sterile?

normal microbiota

76

Does the urine contain normal microbiota or is it sterile?

sterile

77

List some normal microbiota found in the upper respiratory tract:

  • streptococci
  • staphylococci
  • neisseria
  • haemophilus

78

Is streptococci a gram positive or gram negative organism?

gram positive

79

Is staphylococci a gram positive or gram negative organism?

gram positive

80

Is neisseria a gram positive or gram negative organism?

gram negative

81

Is haemophilus a gram positive or gram negative organism?

gram negative

82

List some normal microbiota found on the skin:

  • staphylococci
  • streptococcus pyogenes
  • P. acnes

83

Gram positive organisms stain what color?

purple/blue

84

What are the 2 general shapes of gram positive organisms?

  • cocci
  • rods

85

Cocci can be subdivided into what two groups in the lab?

  • clusters
  • chains/pairs

86

Once gram positive cocci have been identified, what test is performed?

catalase

87

When cocci are clustered, they are usually catalase negative or catalase positive?

positive

88

When cocci are in chains/pairs, they are usually catalase negative or catalase positive?

negative

89

When a bacteria is a cocci, in clusters, and is catalase positive, it is typically what?

staphylococci

90

Once staphylococci is identified, what test is performed?

coagulase

91

Which staphylococci organism is coagulase positive?

S. aureus

92

Which staphylococci organism is coagulase negative?

S. epidermidis

93

Once S. aureus is identified, what test is performed?

susceptibility

94

S. aureus that is susceptible to oxacillin/methicillin is known as what?

MSSA

95

S. aureus that is resistant to oxacillin/methicillin is known as what?

MRSA

96

When a bacteria is a cocci, in chains/pairs, and is catalase negative, it is typically what?

streptococci or enterococci

97

Which streptococci is fully hemolytic?

beta hemolytic

98

Which streptococci is partially hemolytic?

alpha hemolytic

99

Which streptococci has no hemolysis?

gamma

100

Which streptococci organisms are alpha hemolytic?

  • streptococcus pneumoniae
  • viridans streptococci

101

Which streptococci organism is beta hemolytic and belongs to Group A?

streptococcus pyogenes

102

Which streptococci organism is beta hemolytic and belongs to Group B?

streptococcus agalactiae

103

Which organisms are associated with gamma hemolysis?

  • enterococci
  • streptococcus bovis

104

What are some common infections associated with streptococcus pneumoniae?

  • community acquired pneumonia
  • sinutis
  • otitis media
  • meningitis

105

Which pathogen is associated with mouth flora (associated with dental cavities)?

viridans streptococci

106

Which pathogen is typical for strep throat as well as a lot of soft tissue infections?

Streptococcus pyogenes

107

Which pathogen is tested for in the vaginal canal to avoid infecting the baby in a pregnant patient?

streptococcus agalactiae

108

Which pathogen is found in the GI tract and can be associated with colon cancer?

streptococcus bovis

109

Gram positive rods can be subdivided into what main two sections?

  • spore forming
  • non-spore forming

110

Which gram positive rods are spore forming?

  • bacillus
  • clostridium

111

True or False: Clostridium botulinum is the botulism toxin.

True

112

Which clostridium pathogen causes severe diarrhea?

Clostridium difficile

113

Which gram positive rods are non-spore forming?

  • coryneform bacteria
  • listeria

114

Which pathogen can be a food-borne pathogen?

listeria

115

Listeria can cause what in immunosuppressed patients?

meningitis

116

Gram negative pathogens stain what color?

pink

117

True or False: Gram negative pathogens are usually rod shaped.

True

118

Gram negative rods can be subdivided into what two groups?

  • enterobacteriaceae
  • other

119

Enterobacteriaceae is associated with what test?

lactose fermenting test

120

Which pathogens are positive lactose fermenters?

  • E - E. Coli
  • E - Enterobacter
  • C - Citrobacter
  • K - Klebsiella
    • BOLD = MOST COMMON

121

Which pathogens are negative lactose fermenters?

  • P - Proteus
  • M - Morganella
  • S - Serratia
    • BOLD = MOST COMMON

122

True or False: Gram negative rods that are NOT in the enterobacteriaceae family are ALL positive lactose fermenters.

False; negative lactose fermenters

123

Which gram negative rod is oxidase positive?

pseudomonas aeruginosa

124

Which gram negative rods are oxidase negative?

  • acinetobacter
  • stenotrophomonas

125

What are some gram-negative pathogens that are NOT rods?

  • Gram negative diplococci
  • Gram negative coccobaccili

126

Which pathogen is a gram negative diplococci that can be a clinically relevant pathogen for meningitis?

Neisseria

127

Which pathogen is a gram negative coccobaccili can cause a lot of upper respiratory illnesses (i.e. pneumonia) and meningitis?

Haemophilus influenzae

128

Haemophilus influenzae is associated with which vaccine given in children?

Hib vaccine

129

Anaerobes can be subdivided into what to shapes?

  • cocci
  • baccili (rods)

130

Are anaerobes that are cocci gram positive or gram negative?

gram positive

131

Which pathogens are gram positive cocci that are anaerobes?

  • peptostreptococcus
  • peptococcus

132

Peptostreptococcus and peptococcus are typically found where in the body?

mouth

133

True or False: Anaerobes that are baccili (rods) can be both gram positive and gram negative.

True

134

Which anaerobes that are baccili are gram positive?

  • actinomyces
  • proprionobacterium (P. acnes)
  • clostridium

135

Which anaerobes that are baccili are gram negative?

  • bacteroides
  • fusobacterium

136

Which pathogen is a gram negative anaerobe found in the GI tract?

bacteroides

137

What are the most common gram negative rods (GNR) that are in the enterobacteriaceae family that are found in the colon?

  • E. Coli
  • Klebsiella

138

Which pathogen is gram positive and found in the colon?

enterococci

139

Enterococci is associated with what kind of hemolysis?

gamma hemolysis = (NO hemolysis)

140

Which pathogens are anaerobes that are commonly found in the colon?

  • B. fragilis
  • C. difficile