NAT 503 Module 3 Flashcards


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created 2 years ago by Beth_Pruis_Haley
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Molecular Genetics and Genetic Disorders
updated 2 years ago by Beth_Pruis_Haley
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1

A fetus is most vulnerable to environmental teratogens during
birth.
conception.
the first trimester.
the last trimester.

the first trimester.

2

An important difference between skeletal and cardiac muscle is that
cardiac muscle is not striated.
only skeletal muscle is dependent upon actin-myosin cross-bridging.
calcium does not leave the sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiac cells.
cardiac muscle has calcium channels on the cell surface for calcium entry.

cardiac muscle has calcium channels on the cell surface for calcium entry.

3

A point mutation
results from the addition or loss of one or more bases.
is because of the translocation of a chromosomal segment.
always produces significant dysfunction.
involves the substitution of a single base pair.

involves the substitution of a single base pair.

4

Approximately what percentage of the human DNA chromosomes code for proteins?
1%
10%
50%
80%

1%

5

Calcium channel blocker drugs are often used to treat conditions associated with (Select all that apply.)
cardiac muscle.
smooth muscle.
epithelial tissue.
nervous tissue.
connective tissue.

cardiac muscle.
smooth muscle.

6

Characteristics of cellular differentiation include which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
Specialization for different functions
Enhanced ability to replicate
Influenced by memory of developmental events
Dependent on cell-to-cell coordination
Generally not reversible

Specialization for different functions

Influenced by memory of developmental events
Dependent on cell-to-cell coordination
Generally not reversible

7

Characteristics of Marfan syndrome include that it (Select all that apply.
is a single-gene disorder.
involves alterations in connective tissue.
leads to skeletal and joint deformities.
leads to short stocky build.
results in dangerous cardiovascular disorders.

is a single-gene disorder.
involves alterations in connective tissue.
leads to skeletal and joint deformities.
results in dangerous cardiovascular disorders.

8

Characteristics of smooth muscle include
being under voluntary control.
having striations.
contraction being short-lived.
being found in blood vessels

.

being found in blood vessels

9

Characteristics of stem cells include that they (Select all that apply.)
may differentiate into any type of cell.
reside only in the bone marrow.
have greater capacity to proliferate than more differentiated cells.
are dependent upon environmental cues for proliferation.
can die in the absence of an appropriate environment.

may differentiate into any type of cell.

have greater capacity to proliferate than more differentiated cells.
are dependent upon environmental cues for proliferation.
can die in the absence of an appropriate environment.

10

Characteristics of X-linked (sex-linked) recessive disorders include
all daughters of affected fathers’ being carriers.
boys’ and girls’ being equally affected.
the son of a carrier female’s having a 25% chance of being affected.
affected fathers’ transmitting the gene to all their sons.

all daughters of affected fathers’ being carriers.

11

Cystic fibrosis is a single-gene disorder that primarily affects
brain and heart.
kidney and adrenals.
lungs and pancreas.
liver and intestine.

lungs and pancreas.

12

Growth factors influence a cell by:
serving as second messengers.
entering ion channels.
binding to receptors.
controlling cell-to-cell recognition.

binding to receptors.

13

Huntington disease is often transferred to offspring before a parent knows of the genetic possibility of this disease, because
symptoms are so mild that they are not recognized.
symptoms often do not occur until approximately 40 years of age.
genetic testing for the disease is not possible.
the genetic alteration is rarely expressed.

symptoms often do not occur until approximately 40 years of age

14

Huntington disease primarily affects the _____ system.
neurologic
muscular
gastrointestinal
endocrine

neurologic

15

In DNA replication DNA polymerase functions to (Select all that apply.)
pry DNA apart.
unwind and separate the DNA strands.
prevent tangling of DNA strands as they unwind.
match appropriate bases to the template base.
proofread the newly developed DNA for errors in base pairing.

match appropriate bases to the template base.
proofread the newly developed DNA for errors in base pairing.

16

Information parents should be given about the consequences of PKU includes
high dietary phenylalanine may help induce enzyme production.
PKU is commonly associated with other congenital anomalies.
failure to avoid phenylalanine results in progressive mental retardation.
mental retardation is inevitable.

failure to avoid phenylalanine results in progressive mental retardation.

17

Males are more likely than females to be affected by ________ disorders.
X-linked
autosomal-dominant
autosomal-recessive
chromosomal nondisjunction

X-linked

18

Protein synthesis involves (Select all that apply.)
direction from mRNA.
amino acid movement into the nucleus.
nucleotide triplets.
RNA polymerase.
removal of introns from the DNA template.

direction from mRNA.

nucleotide triplets.
RNA polymerase.
removal of introns from the DNA template.

19

Results of biochemical tests indicate an infant has phenylketonuria (PKU). The parents ask what PKU means. Correct responses would include all the following except PKU
is an enzyme deficiency resulting in the inability to metabolize phenylalanine.
is an inborn error of metabolism.
results from a chromosome abnormality called nondisjunction.
is transmitted as an autosomal-recessive disorder.

results from a chromosome abnormality called nondisjunction.

20

Since the nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear membrane, how do most molecules leave the nucleus?
By active transport
Through nuclear pores
Through transport in vesicles
By osmosis

Through nuclear pores

21

The chief function of ribosomes is:
cell signaling.
protein synthesis.
lipid synthesis.
ATP production.

protein synthesis.

22

The differences in structure and function of cells in different body tissues are resulting from
gene differences in tissue cells.
expression of tissue-specific genes.
transcriptional controls.
translation of amino acids to proteins.

expression of tissue-specific genes.

23

The function of mitochondria is to produce:
enzymes necessary for cell division.
proteins for cell membrane receptors.
vesicles for molecular transport.
ATP to provide energy for cell processes.

ATP to provide energy for cell processes.

24

The parents of a child with PKU are concerned about the risk of transmitting the disorder in future pregnancies. The correct assessment of the risk is
each child has a 25% chance of being a carrier.
each child has a 25% chance of being affected.
since one child is already affected, the next three children will be unaffected.
one cannot predict the risk for future pregnancies.

each child has a 25% chance of being affected.

25

The primary factor associated with the risk of Down syndrome is
family history of heritable diseases.
exposure to TORCH syndrome organisms.
maternal alcohol intake.
maternal age.

maternal age.

26

The primary function of the Golgi apparatus is:
production of ATP for an energy source.
synthesis of structural proteins and enzymes.
processing and packaging of proteins into vesicles.
destruction of unwanted proteins.

processing and packaging of proteins into vesicles.

27

The primary role of genes is to
code for reproduction.
direct the synthesis of proteins.
determine differentiation.
determine cellular apoptosis.

direct the synthesis of proteins.

28

The risk period for maternal rubella infection leading to congenital problems begins
prior to conception.
during the last trimester.
at birth.
all through pregnancy.

prior to conception.

29

The two primary locations of active ribosomes in a cell are:
free in the nucleus and attached to the mitochondria.
attached to the mitochondria and free in the cytoplasm.
free both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus.
attached to endoplasmic reticulum and free in cytoplasm.

attached to endoplasmic reticulum and free in cytoplasm.

30

What is the cell cycle?
A process for reusing components of discarded and dying cells
A type of cell signaling that repeats itself
A series of steps through which a cell progresses when it replicates
A type of cell death

A series of steps through which a cell progresses when it replicates

31

Which tissue type is categorized as epithelial?
Tendons and ligaments
Blood cells
Blood vessel endothelium
Cartilage

Blood vessel endothelium

32

What are the major components in the nucleus of a cell?
ATP and proteins
ER and proteins
DNA and proteins
cAMP and proteins

DNA and proteins

33

What is mitosis?
A process of cell division in which each daughter cell has a full set of 46 chromosomes
A process of cell division in which each daughter cell has a half set of 23 unpaired chromosomes
A process of cell death
A process of cell adaptation

A process of cell division in which each daughter cell has a full set of 46 chromosomes

34

What is the cell cycle?
A process for reusing components of discarded and dying cells
A type of cell signaling that repeats itself
A series of steps through which a cell progresses when it replicates
A type of cell death

A series of steps through which a cell progresses when it replicates