NAT 503 Module 2 Flashcards


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Cellular Adaptation, Injury, and Death
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1

All these cellular responses are potentially reversible except
necrosis.
metaplasia.
atrophy.
hyperplasia.

necrosis.

2

An increase in extracellular potassium ion from 4.0 to 6.0 mEq/L would
hyperpolarize the resting membrane potential.
make it more difficult to reach threshold and produce an action potential.
hypopolarize the resting membrane potential.
alter the threshold potential.

hypopolarize the resting membrane potential.

3

An increase in organ size and function caused by increased workload is termed
atrophy.
hypertrophy.
metaplasia
inflammation.

hypertrophy.

4

Apoptosis is a process that results in cellular
atrophy.
death.
proliferation.
mutation.

death.

5

A white blood cell can ingest bacteria or cellular debris through the process of:
exocytosis.
phagocytosis.
facilitated diffusion.
active transport.

phagocytosis.

6

Bacteria cause injury to cells by (Select all that apply.)
producing exotoxins.
producing endotoxins.
producing destructive enzymes.
reproducing inside of host cells altering cellular function.
evoking an immune reaction.

producing exotoxins.
producing endotoxins.
producing destructive enzymes.

evoking an immune reaction.

7

Carbon monoxide injures cells by
destruction of cellular membranes.
reducing oxygen level on hemoglobin.
promotion of free radicals.
crystallization of cellular organelles.

reducing oxygen level on hemoglobin.

8

Cell-to-cell communication through secretion of chemical signals into the bloodstream to target cells throughout the body is called _____ signaling.
synaptic
paracrine
endocrine
autocrine

endocrine

9

Coagulative necrosis is caused by
dissolving of dead cells and cyst formation.
trauma or pancreatitis.
lung tissue damage.
interrupted blood supply.

interrupted blood supply.

10

During conditions of prolonged insufficient oxygen availability (e.g., respiratory or cardiovascular disease) anaerobic glycolysis accumulated pyruvate can lead to lactic acidosis.
True
False

True

11

Excitable cells are able to conduct action potentials because they have
receptors for neurotransmitters.
tight junctions.
ligand-gated channels.
voltage-gated channels

.

voltage-gated channels

12

Extreme cold injures cells by all the following except
ischemic injury from vasoconstriction.
peripheral nerve damage from rebound vasodilation.
decreased blood viscosity.
crystallization of cellular components.

decreased blood viscosity.

13

Gap junctions are connecting channels that allow passage of small molecules from one cell to the next and are especially important for
distance signaling.
tissues requiring synchronized function.
communication within a cell.
passage of large molecules.

tissues requiring synchronized function.

14

Glycolysis is the metabolic process of breaking down a glucose molecule to form
CO2 and H2O.
2 ATP and 2 pyruvate.
30 ATP.
oxygen.

2 ATP and 2 pyruvate.

15

GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) function to
activate receptors on the extracellular surface.
degrade second-messenger molecules.
activate intracellular enzyme systems.
synthesize ATP.

activate intracellular enzyme systems.

16

Infectious injury often results from (Select all that apply.)
exotoxins.
endotoxins.
self-destruction of cells.
anti-inflammatory reactions.
enzymes from white blood cells.

exotoxins.

endotoxins.

self-destruction of cells.

enzymes from white blood cells.

17

Ion channels open and close in response to all the following except
mechanical pressure.
ligand binding.
voltage changes.
temperature changes.

temperature changes.

18

Metaplasia is
the replacement of one differentiated cell type with another.
the transformation of a cell type to malignancy.
an irreversible cellular adaptation.
the disorganization of cells into various sizes, shapes, and arrangements.

the replacement of one differentiated cell type with another.

19

Movement of water through a membrane that separates two compartments with unequal concentration is called:
facilitated diffusion.
active transport.
osmosis.
endocytosis.

osmosis.

20

Necrotic death of brain tissue usually produces _____ necrosis.
coagulative
caseous
liquefactive
fat

liquefactive

21

Of the statements below, the accurate statement regarding nutrition and cellular health is
the body can generally produce elements essential for nutritional balance.
obese individuals are generally nutritionally healthy.
deficient cellular uptake by one cell type may contribute to excess nutrient delivery to other cell types.
a normal BMI indicates nutritional health.

deficient cellular uptake by one cell type may contribute to excess nutrient delivery to other cell types.

22

Phospholipids spontaneously form lipid bilayers, because they are
polar.
charged.
insoluble.
amphipathic.

amphipathic.

23

Reperfusion injury to cells
results in very little cellular damage.
results from calcium deficiency in cells.
occurs following nutritional injury.
involves formation of free radicals.

involves formation of free radicals.

24

Repolarization of a neuron after a depolarizing action potential is because of
activation of the Na+-K+ pump.
influx of calcium.
efflux of potassium.
influx of sodium.

efflux of potassium.

25

Ribosomes are very important organelles within the cell that have the function of
detoxifying substances.
synthesizing proteins.
converting energy to forms that can be used.
coding for protein synthesis.

synthesizing proteins.

26

Signaling molecules such as hormones and growth factors influence their target cells by binding to their:
lipids.
organelles.
receptors.
cytoskeleton.

receptors.

27

Somatic death refers to death
of a body organ.
of the entire organism.
of nerve cells.
secondary to brain damage.

of the entire organism.

28

Some individuals inherit a gene that results in dangerously high blood cholesterol caused by impaired endocytosis of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs).
True
False

True

29

The benefit of glycolysis is that this second stage of catabolism supplies
ATP to meet energy needs of the body.
pyruvate to the citric acid cycle.
energy for oxidative phosphorylation.
lactate during anaerobic conditions.

pyruvate to the citric acid cycle.

30

The cardiac drug digitalis enhances myocardial contraction, because it
increases intracellular calcium level in cardiac cells.
inhibits sodium from entering cardiac cells.
enhances the sodium–potassium pump.
increases the sodium gradient across the cell membrane.

increases intracellular calcium level in cardiac cells.

31

The cellular change that is considered preneoplastic is
anaplasia.
dysplasia.
metaplasia.
hyperplasia.

dysplasia.

32

The cellular component that is most susceptible to radiation injury is the
membrane.
DNA.
RNA.
ribosomes.

DNA.

33

The cellular response indicative of injury because of faulty metabolism is
hydropic swelling.
lactate production.
metaplasia.
intracellular accumulations.

intracellular accumulations.

34

The cellular structure that contains DNA is called the:
cytoplasm.
nucleus.
ribosome.
histone.

nucleus.

35

The chief function of ribosomes is:
synthesis of proteins.
synthesis of lipids.
disposal of phagocytized particles.
packaging proteins into secretory vesicles.

synthesis of proteins.

36

The chief function of the Golgi apparatus is:
enzyme storage and degradation.
lipid synthesis and metabolism.
disposal of phagocytized particles.
packaging proteins into secretory vesicles.

packaging proteins into secretory vesicles.

37

The chief function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is:
enzyme storage and degradation.
lipid synthesis and metabolism.
disposal of phagocytized particles.
packaging proteins into secretory vesicles.

lipid synthesis and metabolism.

38

The main principle of the fluid mosaic model is that:
fluids can move easily in and out of cells.
proteins float in a fluid lipid bilayer.
cell membranes consist mainly of fluid.
the body consists mainly of water.

proteins float in a fluid lipid bilayer.

39

The organelle that contains enzymes necessary for oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP is the
mitochondria.
ribosome.
lysosome.
nucleus.

mitochondria.

40

The phase of cellular metabolism in which energy is released during breakdown of nutrient sources is anabolism.
True
False

False

41

The primary effect of aging on all body systems is
decreased functional reserve.
diseased function.
programmed senescence.
senility.

decreased functional reserve.

42

The resting membrane potential in nerve and skeletal muscle is determined primarily by
extracellular sodium ion concentration.
the ratio of intracellular to extracellular potassium ions.
activation of voltage-gated sodium channels.
activity of energy-dependent membrane pumps.

the ratio of intracellular to extracellular potassium ions.

43

Transport channels, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules all are found in cell membranes and they are made primarily of:
lipids.
carbohydrates.
proteins.
nucleic acids.

proteins.

44

Under aerobic conditions, what process produces most of the energy for the cell?
Oxidative phosphorylation
Glycolysis
Active transport
Passive transport

Oxidative phosphorylation

45

Viruses differ from most bacteria in that they (Select all that apply.)
enter the host cell.
directly produce free radicals.
use the host’s metabolic processes to survive and replicate.
do not induce an immune response.
do not produce toxins.

enter the host cell.

use the host’s metabolic processes to survive and replicate.

do not produce toxins.

46

What is a cytoskeleton?
Cellular debris from a dead cell
The proteins in a cell membrane
A protein network inside a cell
The result of phagocytosis

A protein network inside a cell

47

What is a lysosome?
A cell that has ruptured
A degradative enzyme inside a cell
A substance that has been ingested by a phagocytic cell
A membrane-bound bag of degradative enzymes within a cell

A membrane-bound bag of degradative enzymes within a cell

48

Which form of molecular transport requires energy in the form of ATP?
Passive transport
Facilitated diffusion
Active transport
Osmosis

Active transport

49

Which one of these cellular processes can operate without oxygen?
Oxidative phosphorylation
Glycolysis
Citric acid cycle
Krebs cycle

Glycolysis

50

Why is ongoing synthesis of ATP necessary for cell survival?
ATP is synthesized by mitochondria and released into the cytoplasm.
ATP provides energy for ion pumping and other cellular processes.
ATP is the genetic material of the cell.
ATP is an enzyme necessary for glucose metabolism.

ATP provides energy for ion pumping and other cellular processes.