NAT 503 INTREGRATIVE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY MODULE 1 Flashcards


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THE HISTORY OF NATURAL MEDICINE
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1

A 17-year-old college-bound student receives a vaccine against an organism that causes meningitis. This is an example of
primary prevention.
secondary prevention.
tertiary prevention.
disease treatment.

primary prevention.

2

A disease that is native to a particular region is called
epidemic.
endemic.
pandemic.
ethnographic.

endemic.

3

After suffering a heart attack, a middle-aged man is counseled to take a cholesterol-lowering medication. This is an example of
primary prevention.
secondary prevention.
tertiary prevention.
disease treatment.

tertiary prevention.

4

Aldosterone may increase during stress, leading to (Select all that apply.)
decreased urinary output.
increased blood potassium.
increased sodium retention.
increased blood volume.
decreased blood pressure.

decreased urinary output.

increased sodium retention.

increased blood volume.

5

All the following stress-induced hormones increase blood glucose except
aldosterone.
cortisol.
norepinephrine.
epinephrine.

aldosterone.

6

An obese but otherwise healthy teen is given a prescription for a low-calorie diet and exercise program. This is an example of
primary prevention.
secondary prevention.
tertiary prevention.
disease treatment.

secondary prevention.

7

A patient has been exposed to meningococcal meningitis, but is not yet demonstrating signs of this disease. This stage of illness is called the _____ stage.
prodromal
latent
sequela
convalescence

latent

8

A patient with high blood pressure who is otherwise healthy is counseled to restrict sodium intake. This is an example of
primary prevention.
secondary prevention.
tertiary prevention.
disease treatment.

secondary prevention.

9

Chronic activation of stress hormones can lead to (Select all that apply.)
cardiovascular disease.
depression.
impaired cognitive function.
autoimmune disease.
overactive immune function.

cardiovascular disease.
depression.
impaired cognitive function.
autoimmune disease.

10

C.Q. was recently exposed to group A hemolytic Streptococcus and subsequently developed a pharyngeal infection. His clinic examination reveals an oral temperature of 102.3°F, skin rash, dysphagia, and reddened throat mucosa with multiple pustules. He complains of sore throat, malaise, and joint stiffness. A throat culture is positive for Streptococcus, and antibiotics have been prescribed. The etiology of C.Q.’s disease is
a sore throat.
streptococcal infection.
genetic susceptibility.
pharyngitis.

streptococcal infection.

11

Events which occur during the alarm stage of the stress response include secretion of (Select all that apply.)
catecholamines.
ACTH.
glucocorticoids.
immune cytokines.
TSH.

catecholamines.
ACTH.
glucocorticoids.
immune cytokines.

12

Indicators that an individual is experiencing high stress include all the following except
tachycardia.
diaphoresis.
increased peripheral resistance.
pupil constriction.

pupil constriction.

13

In general, with aging, organ size and function
increase.
decrease.
remain the same.
are unknown.

decrease.

14

Many of the responses to stress are attributed to activation of the sympathetic nervous system and are mediated by
norepinephrine.
cortisol.
glucagon.
ACTH.

norepinephrine.

15

Persistence of the alarm stage will ultimately result in
stress reduction.
permanent damage and death.
movement into the resistance stage.
exhaustion of the sympathetic nervous system.

permanent damage and death.

16

Selye’s three phases of the stress response include all the following except
allostasis.
resistance.
alarm.
exhaustion.

allostasis.

17

Socioeconomic factors influence disease development because of (Select all that apply.)
genetics.
environmental toxins.
overcrowding.
nutrition.
hygiene.

environmental toxins.
overcrowding.
nutrition.
hygiene.

18

The effect of stress on the immune system
is unknown.
has been demonstrated to be non-existent in studies.
most often involves enhancement of the immune system.
may involve enhancement or impairment the immune system.

may involve enhancement or impairment the immune system.

19

The effects of excessive cortisol production include
immune suppression.
hypoglycemia.
anorexia.
inflammatory reactions.

immune suppression.

20

The nurse is swabbing a patient’s throat to test for streptococcal pharyngitis. The nurse must understand that tests such as this differ in the probability that they will be positive for a condition when applied to a person with the condition; this probability is termed sensitivity.
True
False

True

21

The primary adaptive purpose of the substances produced in the alarm stage is
energy and repair.
invoke resting state.
produce exhaustion.
set a new baseline steady-state.

energy and repair.

22

The stage during which the patient functions normally, although the disease processes are well established, is referred to as
latent.
subclinical.
prodromal.
convalescence.

subclinical.

23

When the cause is unknown, a condition is said to be idiopathic
True
False

True

24

Which is not normally secreted in response to stress?
Norepinephrine
Cortisol
Epinephrine
Insulin

Insulin

25

Your patient’s red blood cell is slightly elevated today. This might be explained by (Select all that apply.)
gender difference.
situational factors.
normal variation.
cultural variation.
illness.

gender difference.

situational factors.

normal variation.

illness.