Chapter 19

Helpfulness: +1
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1

What are the 2 main circulations

pulmonary & systemic

2

Pulmonary circulation

short loop from the heart to lungs back to heart
right side

3

Systemic circulation

long loop from the body back to the heart

4

Arteries

carry blood away
oxygenated-systemic circulation
deoxygenated-pulmonary circulation

5

Veins

carry blood towards
oxygenated-pulmonary circulation
deoxygenated-systemic circulation

6

Capillaries

very tiny
only 1 red blood cell can enter at a time
microscopic

7

Lumen

in the middle
blood-containing space

8

What are the 3 layers of the veins/arteries

tunica intima-inside
tunica media-middle
tunica externa-outside

9

Tunica intima

endothelium lines the lumen

10

Tunica externa

collagen fiber protect/reinforce

11

Tunica media

smooth muscle
sympathetic nerve fibers
control vasoconstriction and vasodilation of vessels

12

Arteriols

smallest arteries leads to capillary beds

13

Muscular Arteries

thick tunica media more smooth muscle
delivers blood to organs
active in vasoconstriction

14

Elastic Arteries

large thick wall
elastin in all tunics
ex-aorta & its branches

15

What are the 3 major types of arteries

elastic
muscular
arteriols

16

What are the functions of the capillaries

exchange gas, nutrients, wastes, hormones etc

17

What are the 3 types of capillaries

continuous
fenestrated
sinusoidal

18

Sinusoidal capillaries

most permeable
liver, bone marrow, spleen

19

Fenestrated capillaries

more permeable than continuous
absorption/filtrate formation
small intestine, endocrine glands, kidneys

20

Continuous capillaries

least permeable
skin/muscles
continuous capillaries of the brain

21

Veins

thinner walls, larger lumens
blood pressure lower
thin media, thick externa collagen fibers/elastic networks
called blood reservoirs contain 65% of blood supply

22

Blood flow

volume of blood
ml/min
equivalent to cardiac output
constant when at rest
varies through organs

23

What are 3 important sources of resistance

blood viscosity-how thick it is
total blood vessel length
blood vessel diameter

24

Blood pressure

how much pressure blood puts on the vessel
mm Hg
systemic arterial BP in arteries near heart
blood moving from higher to lower pressure areas

25

Blood viscosity

thickness of the blood

26

Blood vessel length

longer the vessel greater the resistance
constant

27

What are the 2 factors that remain relatively constant

blood viscosity
blood vessel length

28

Resistance (peripheral resistance)

opposition to flow- clog in blood vessel
amount of friction blood encounters
peripheral systemic circulation

29

What is required in maintaining blood pressure

cooperation of heart, blood vessels, kidneys
supervision by the brain

30

Systemic blood pressure

left side of heart
pumping action that generates blood flow
higher in aorta
declines through the pathway
is 0 mm Hg in right atrium
steepest drop is in arteriols

31

What 2 factors effect the arteries close to the heart

elasticity
volume of blood

32

Blood pressure near the heart is

pulsatile(variation)

33

Systolic pressure

exerted during ventricular contraction

34

Diastolic pressure

lowest level of arterial pressure

35

Pulse pressure

difference between systolic and diastolic

36

What is the smallest blood vessel

capillary

37

What helps prevent backflow of blood

valves

38

Mean arterial pressure

pressure that pushes blood to the tissues
MAP=diastolic + 1/3 pulse pressure

39

Capillary blood vessel

15*35mm Hg
low pressure is desirable
high BP would rupture fragile thin walled capillaries
very permeable
low pressure forces filtrate into interstitial spaces

40

Venous blood pressure

little change during cardiac cycle
small pressure gradient 15mm Hg
low pressure effects peripheral resistance

41

What is used to measure blood pressure

sphygmomanometer

42

Vital signs

pulse
blood pressure
respiratory rate
body temperature

43

Pulse

pressure caused by the arteries expansion and recoil

44

Variations in blood pressure

higher in the morning due to hormones
age,sex,weight,race,mood,posture

45

Hypotension

low blood pressure
systolic below 100
long life/lack of cardiovascular illness

46

Acute hypotension

circulatory shock

47

Chronic hypotension

poor nutrition
warning sigh for Addisons disease/hypothyroidism

48

Orthostatic hypotension

temporary low BP
dizziness when rising from sitting or reclining

49

The rate of flow is precisely what

the right amount to provide proper function

50

Secondary hypertension includes what disorders

kidney disease
asteriosclerosis
hyperthyroidism
Cushings disease

51

Hypertension

high blood pressure
140/90 or higher
higher during fever,physical exertion, upset
persistent in obese people

52

What is blood flow involved in

delivers oxygen/nutrients & removes wastes from tissue cells
gas exchange(lungs)
absorption of nutrients(digestive tract)
urine formation(kidneys)

53

Vasomotion

slow/intermitten flow
on/off open/close or precapillary sphincters