Health science 6-12 Flashcards


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1

John Snow, M.D., traced the source of the London cholera epidemic of 1854 to
a public water pump. When the pump handle was dismantled, the epidemic was
brought under control. In recognition of his efforts, he is regarded as the
founder of

A. the germ theory.
B. immunology.
C. sewage treatment engineering.
D. epidemiology.

D

2
card image

Based on the graphs above, compared to individuals in high-income countries,
individuals in low-income countries are more likely to die from
A. breast cancer.
B. colon cancer.
C. infectious diseases.
D. ischemic heart disease.

C

3
card image

Based on the graph, treatment for a patient with Alzheimer’s disease in 2012
was primarily paid by
A. personal insurance plans.
B. government sources.
C. the patient.
D. the patient’s family.

B

4

Gregor Mendel discovered genetic inheritance patterns using
A. mice.
B. squash.
C. pumpkins.
D. garden peas.

D

5

A recent study by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)
estimated that the United States will have a shortfall of more than 50,000
physicians by the year 2025. Based on the study’s finding, which of the
following statements provides the most reasonable prediction?
A. Medical assistants will take the place of doctors in most cases.
B. Health care will proceed as it has, with higher numbers of patients served by
fewer doctors.
C. Nurse practitioners will continue to grow in number and will have much
more authority in the future.
D. Physician assistants will take the place of doctors in most areas of diagnosis
and prescription.

C

6
card image

Based on the graph, which of the following conditions causes the most deaths
worldwide?
A. Ischemic heart disease
B. Stroke
C. Lower respiratory infection
D. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

C

7

Which of the following is a United States government report used to measure
the effectiveness of health care in the United States?
A. World Health Report
B. National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report
C. CDC Health Disparities & Inequalities Report (CHDIR)
D. National Health Insurer Report Card (NHIRC)

B

8

Which of the following terms best identifies the confusion, agitation, and
aggressive behavior that individuals with dementia frequently experience in the
late afternoon and early evening?
A. Circadian rhythm
B. Synucleinopathy
C. Sleep apnea
D. Sundown syndrome

D

9

9. The correct term for blood in the urine is
A. hematoma.
B. hemoglobin.
C. hemolysis.
D. hematuria.

D

10

Which of the following is the best definition for plagiocephaly?
A. Premature fusion of the coronal suture
B. Premature closure of the sagittal suture
C. A genetic bone-softening disease causing a malformation of the skull and
facial bones
D. A condition caused by positional molding of the skull when infants are put to
sleep on their backs

D

11

Which of the following best explains why air from the atmosphere moves into
the lungs?
A. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the pressure inside the lungs,
forcing air from the atmosphere into the lungs.
B. An increase in thoracic volume creates a more negative pressure in the
lungs than that of the atmosphere.
C. Wave-like contractions of the trachea pump air from the atmosphere into
the lungs.
D. Muscles attached to alveoli cause each alveolus to expand and hold more air
from the atmosphere

B

12

The cardinal gaze test shows that a patient’s right eye cannot track in the
temporal direction. Which cranial nerve is most likely affected?
A. III
B. IV
C. VI
D. VII

C

13

Which THREE of the following are classified as micronutrients?
A. Vitamin A
B. Iron
C. Protein
D. Zinc

ABD

14

Which of the following are the causative agents of bovine spongiform
encephalopathy in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans?
A. Prions
B. Bacteria
C. Viruses
D. Fungi

A

15

Which of the following antimicrobial agents interferes with bacterial cell wall
synthesis?
A. Sulfonamide
B. Penicillin
C. Tetracycline
D. Erythromycin

B

16

In 1882, which of the following scientists discovered the causative organism for
tuberculosis?
A. Robert Koch
B. Joseph Lister
C. Louis Pasteur
D. J. Hans D. Jensen

A

17

Which of the following types of bacteria is completely dependent on oxygen for
respiration?
A. Obligate anaerobe
B. Obligate aerobe
C. Aerotolerant anaerobe
D. Facultative anaerobe

B

18

Which of the following are produced as part of the nonspecific immune
response?
A. Neutrophils
B. Helper T cells
C. Cytotoxic T cells
D. B lymphocytes

A

19

Which of the following cellular components primarily acts as a protein catalyst
in facilitating molecular rearrangements important for cell function?
A. An enzyme
B. A lysosome
C. Cytosol
D. A ribosome

A

20

The time between the exposure to a pathogenic agent and the appearance of
the first symptoms is the
A. lag period.
B. decline period.
C. incubation period.
D. prodromal period.

C

21

The adverse effects of polypharmacy are much greater for people with which of
the following?
A. Gastrointestinal problems
B. Skin conditions
C. Hearing impairments
D. Cardiovascular issues

D

22

Which of the following lists contains three cognitive disorders commonly seen in
the elderly?
A. Delirium, depression, dementia
B. Sensory impairments, pain, medication use
C. Cerebrovascular accidents, cancers, hypertension
D. Loss of hearing, loss of visual acuity, loss of coordination

A

23

Which of the following pharmacological drug-related issues is the leading cause
of hospitalization and death in the elderly?
A. Adverse drug reactions
B. Alcohol abuse
C. Illicit drug use
D. Substitution of generic drugs for brand name drugs

A

24

Which of the following would most likely be attributed to a diet that is high in
processed foods, contains large amounts of trans fats, and is low in fiber?
A. Osteoporosis
B. Scurvy
C. Diabetes
D. Anemia

C

25

Information about which of the following is available on the Nutrition Facts
label?
A. Total fats and cholesterol
B. Product ingredients and allergens
C. Net weight and company producing the product
D. Refrigeration status and expiration date

A

26

Which of the following includes only substances needed to calculate the amount
of carbohydrates on a food label?
A. Cholesterol and calories
B. Sodium and vitamins
C. Fat and protein
D. Fiber and sugars

D

27

Which of the following is an important clinical aspect of binge eating disorder?
A. Electrolyte imbalances
B. Use of laxatives or diuretics
C. Intense fear of gaining weight
D. Eating large amounts of food at one sitting

C

28

Which THREE of the following food items would most likely cause discomfort for
a patient who suffers from severe ulcerative colitis (inflammatory bowel
disease)?
A. Whole milk
B. Peppered steak
C. Potatoes
D. Fried fish

A, B, D

29

Which of the following methods of drug administration has the most immediate
effect on the central nervous system?
A. Oral
B. Sublingual
C. Intravenous
D. Topical

C

30

A health science teacher shares a scenario in which an individual with a blood
clot (deep vein thrombosis) is taking a blood-thinning medication. The teacher
explains that the individual should not be asked to take aspirin primarily due to
the risk of which of the following?
A. Relative contraindication
B. Absolute contraindication
C. Relative standards
D. Absolute standards

A

31

Which of the following is a symptom of the human body reacting to stress?
A. Healing of open wounds is slower
B. Hearing a ringing in the ears
C. Aching pain due to tense muscles
D. Having increased sexual desire or ability

C

32

A 22-year-old patient shows a recent change in personality, has a distorted
perception of reality, and experiences disorganized thinking and speech but
does not have any other physical symptoms. The patient most likely displays
symptoms of which of the following disorders?
A. Schizophrenia
B. Dissociative identity disorder
C. Major depressive disorder
D. Antisocial personality disorder

A

33

A patient in the ER experiences numbness and weakness in her right arm and
slurred speech. After several hours, she recovers fully and has normal arm
strength and speech patterns. Based on the symptoms the patient was
experiencing, which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A. Stroke
B. Epileptic seizure
C. Cerebral aneurysm
D. Transient ischemic attack

D

34

Which of the following lifestyle choices is the largest contributor to death from
preventable reasons in the United States?
A. Drinking alcohol in excess
B. Consuming a high-fat diet
C. Smoking cigarettes
D. Driving recklessly

C

35

Which of the following levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs primarily deals with
prestige and a feeling of accomplishment?
A. Self-actualization
B. Esteem needs
C. Belonging and love needs
D. Safety needs

B

36

One of a nurse’s functions is to understand the various ways to assist a patient
with mobility difficulties. Which of the following pieces of equipment is used to
allow the patient to pull his or her upper extremities to raise the trunk off the
bed to assist in transferring the patient from the bed to a wheelchair?
A. Footboard
B. Trapeze bar
C. Transfer belt
D. Trochanter roll

B

37

A 45-year-old patient has a respiratory rate of 25 breaths per minute and a
pulse rate of 123 beats per minute. Which of the following terms correctly
describes this condition?
A. Bradypnea and tachycardia
B. Tachypnea and tachycardia
C. Tachypnea and bradycardia
D. Bradypnea and bradycardia

B

38

Which of the following is a key component of the Health Insurance Portability
and Accountability Act (HIPAA)?
A. A patient can ask for an in-law’s health records.
B. A physician can give a patient’s health information to his or her employer.
C. A patient has the right to ask for and get a copy of his or her health records.
D. A physician can share private notes about a patient’s health care.

C

39

Handling chemicals and hazardous materials involves following procedures for
both general use and for specific chemical hazard groups. Which of the
following handling procedures best describes a generic protocol to follow when
handling chemicals?
A. Using safety rubber bottle carriers or nonbreakable bottles for the transport
of strong acids and bases
B. Working with a peer in the laboratory and correctly labeling all used
containers
C. Storing the smallest possible amounts of toxic chemicals in established
areas
D. Ensuring that flammable liquids are stored only in containers that exceed
one-quart capacity for purity

B

40

Which of the following elements of the cycle of infection primarily includes
direct physical contact or contact with body fluids?
A. Infectious agent
B. Reservoir
C. Portal of exit
D. Transmission

D

41

Which THREE of the following are recommended safety practices in the
laboratory?
A. Tying back hair
B. Wearing goggles
C. Wearing open-toed shoes
D. Wearing protective mittens when handling hot containers

A,B,D

42

According to the National Institute of Health (NIH), one of the behaviors of a
team member is to clearly communicate parameters of delegated responsibility,
including decision-making authority and required actions or deadlines. This
statement best describes which of the following behaviors?
A. Innovation
B. Adaptability
C. Collaboration
D. Accountability

D

43

Which of the following lists correctly identifies the key characteristics that
cohesive health care teams should exhibit?
A. Clear goals with measurable outcomes, effective communication, and
informed knowledge of pharmacology
B. Training of all team members, effective communication, and a clear concept
of chronic care
C. Effective communication, understanding of insurance premiums, and clear
goals with measurable outcomes
D. Training of all team members, effective communication, and clear goals with
measurable outcomes

D

44

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) job competencies, expected
responsibilities of a team member are to explore new ideas, methodologies,
different positions, and alternatives to reach good outcomes.
These responsibilities best describe which of the following?
A. Innovation
B. Adaptability
C. Collaboration
D. Accountability

A

45

Which THREE of the following are personal characteristics health-care workers
should display to be most effective in their profession?
A. Empathetic
B. Polite
C. Resourceful
D. A follower

A,B,C

46

Which THREE of the following provide professional development opportunities
related to health care?
A. Donor agencies
B. Nongovernmental organizations
C. Academic institutions
D. Consumer organizations

B,C,D

47

Which THREE of the following are advantages of participating in continuous
professional development opportunities related to health care?
A. It encourages reflective practice.
B. It allows a person to acquire new skills for a safe and effective practice.
C. It allows a hospital administrator greater opportunity to transfer staff.
D. It provides different types of formal and informal learning opportunities and
support.

A,B,D

48

Which of the following did Congress pass in 1996 that mandated both privacy
and security regulations in the health care industry?
A. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
B. The Affordable Care Act (ACA)
C. The Wagner National Health Act (WNHA)
D. The McCarran-Ferguson Act (MFA)

A

49

An increase in malpractice premiums would most likely influence which THREE
of the following decisions by a physician?
A. Decisions about where to locate the medical practice
B. Degree of professional development
C. Selection of insurance company
D. Charge for treatments to patients

A,C,D

50

Which of the following is necessary for a medical power of attorney or health
care proxy to begin making health care choices for a patient?
A. The requirements depend on the particular laws of the state in which the
patient resides.
B. At least one physician must determine that the patient is unable to
communicate effectively or make health care decisions independently.
C. At least two physicians must determine that the patient is unable to
communicate effectively or make health care decisions independently.
D. The physician and the family members must agree that the patient is unable
to communicate effectively or make health care decisions independently.

A