Unit 1 Review (b)

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The Cell
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1

Cell Theory

Basic structural and functional unit of the body

a) Human body is made of 60 trillion-100 trillion cells
b) Around 300 types
c) Structure and function related

2

Cell Physiology

Study of cellular function

3

Plasma Membrane
(Cellular Organization)

Cell membrane - Is a selective barrier that regulates the flow of materials into and out of a cell

4

Nucleus

Genetic material of cell- Large organelle that houses most of a cells' DNA
- double membrane nuclear envelope perforated by nuclear pores (holes in nucleus)

5

Cytoplasm

Everything between the membrane and the nucleus. Has two components; Cytosol and Organelles

6

Cytosol

Intracellular Fluid (75-90% water)
* Organic molecules (proteins, carbs, lipids)
* Ions
* Inclusions
* lipid droplet
* glycogen granules

7

Organelles
(cellular organization)

Subcellular structures with specific functions

8

Cholesterol

Gives rigidity and structure to cell membrane

9

Phospholipids

* Polar heads- hydrophobic and face on both surfaces of watery environment
* Nonpolar tails- hydrophobic and line up next to each other in the interior

10

Integral Proteins
(types of membrane proteins)

- extend into or completely across cell membrane
- Transmembrane proteins are integral proteins that extend all the way across
- Glycoproteins- have an attached sugar portion facing ECF called a glycocalyx: used as a cell identifier

11

Peripheral Proteins
(types of membrane proteins)

Attached to either inner or outer surface of cell membrane

12

Functions of Membrane Proteins - Formation of Channel

Passageway to allow specific substance to pass through

13

Function of Membrane Proteins- Transporter Proteins

Bind a specific substance, change their shape and move it across membrane

14

Function of Membrane Proteins- Receptor Proteins

Cellular recognition site- bind to substance

15

Function of Membrane Proteins- Cell Identity Marker

Allow cell to recognize other similar cells

16

Function of Membrane Proteins- Linker

Anchor proteins in cell membrane or to other cells

17

Function of Membrane Proteins- Enzyme

Speed up reactions

18

Simple Diffusion

Passive- Does not use ATP
- Substances move freely through the lipid bilayer without help from membrane transport proteins

19

Nucleolus

Spherical, dark body within nucleus where ribosomes are made

20

Facilitated Diffusion

Uses carrier molecules
- Membrane proteins assist a specific substance through membrane

21

Osmosis

Net movement of a solvent through a selectively permeable membrane.
- Passive Does not use ATP

22

Tonicity- Hypotonic

A solution that has a lower concentration of solutes than the cytosol inside the RBC's

23

Tonicity- Hypertonic

Has a higher concentration of solutes than the cytosol inside RBC's

24

Tonicity- Isotonic

The concentrations of solutes that cannot cross the plasma membrane are the same on both sides of the membrane in this solution.

25

Non-membranous Organelles

Lack membranes & are in direct contact with cytoplasm
(found in laundry detergent)

26

Membranous Organelles

Surrounded by one or two lipid bilayer membranes; solid proteinmaterial

27

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Grows right off the nucleus; made of membrane
- Network of membranes forming flattened sacs
- Delivers oxygen, nutrients, and tokens to cells; fat-soluble

28

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
(Rough ER)

Continuos with nuclear envelope & covered with attached ribosomes
- synthesizes, processes, & packages proteins for export (makes something new)

29

Ribosomes

* Packages of Ribosomal RNA and protein (the workbench for making a protein)
* Location of Ribosomes
- Free Ribosomes loose in cytosol
- Membrane-bound ribosomes- attached to rough ER
- Ribosomes are made in the nucleolus in two parts and assembled in the cytoplasm

30

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
(Smooth ER)

- No attached ribosomes; makes enzymes, lipids, & carbohydrates
* Contains embedded enzymes that synthesize phospholipids, steroids and fats
* Detoxifies harmful substances (alcohol) from cell
* Liver has lots of Smooth ER

31

Golgi Complex

Sorts, modifies and packages product from the ER.

* 3-20 flattened, curved membranous sacs called cisterns
* Processes & packages proteins processed by rough ER

32

Lysosomes

Membranous Vesicles
* Formed in Golgi Complex
* Filled with digestive enzymes

Functions
* Digests foreign substances
* Autophagy- recycles own organelles (self-eating)
* Autolysis- Destruction of own cell (programmed to divide certain times then die)

33

Peroxisomes

*Look Like Lysosomes*

Membranous Vesicles
* Smaller than Lysosomes
* Breakdown of amino acids and fatty acids
* Detoxify substances such as alcohol and formaldehyde
Makes Hydrogen Peroxide to rid body of bacteria

34

Chromatin

Snot-like substance (unraveled chromosomes)

35

Ribosomal Subunits

Made of two parts; large and small subunit. Makes ribosomes, found floating in cytoplasm & studded in Endoplasmic Reticulum

36

Mitochondria

*Powerhouse of the Cell*
- Makes ATP; the rechargeable battery of your body
Double Membrane Organelle
* Central cavity known as Matrix
* Inner membrane folds known as cristae (bigger than outer layer)
Mitochondria self replicate
* circular DNA with 37 genes
* only inherited from mother

37

Cytoskeleton

Helps with movement, cell support and shape of cell

Types of cytoskeleton filaments
- Microfilaments (smallest)
- Intermediate filaments (medium size, anchor organelles)
- Microtubules large cylindrical structures

38

Centrosomes

Found near nucleus
- Formation site for mitotic spindle
- Helps form celia and flagella

39

Cilia and Flagella

Structure made out of microtubues
- covered by a cell membrane
Differences
* Cilia- short and multiple (hair like structure that moves mucus down to digestive system, moving in one direction)
* Flagella- longer and single. (long tail, sperm cell)

40

The Somatic Cell Cycle- Interphase

G1= cytoplasmic increase (Go cell never divides again)

S= replication of chromosomes

G2= cytoplasmic growth (enzymes & protein made)

41

The Somatic Cell Cycle- Nuclear Division

*Mitosis*

Divided into 4 stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase & telophase

One parent cell gives rise to 2 identical daughter cells

Occurs in billions of cells each day and is needed for tissue repair and growth

42

The Somatic Cell Cycle- Cytoplasmic Division

*Cytokinesis*

Cytokinesis occurs at the moment the cells are split into two.

43

Active Transport

Active; uses ATP
- Uses carrier molecules

44

Endocytosis

Uptake: Active, uses ATP
- Materials move into a cell in a vesicle formed by the plasma membrane

45

Phagocytosis

Is a form of endocytosis in which the cell engulfs large solid particles, such as, worn-out cells, bacteria or viruses

46

Pinocytosis

Also known as Bulk-phase endocytosis
- "Cell-Drinking": movement of a solid particle into a cell after pseudopods engulf it to form a phagosome

47

Exocytosis

Movement of substances out of a cell in secretory vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents into the ECF