political science exam two

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1

public opinion

the values and attitudes that people have about issues, events, and personalities.

2

political values

the three most fundamental values are equality of opportunity, liberty, democracy.

3

political efficacy

amount of impact citizens feel they have on a government.

4

Political Ideology

a complex set of beliefs and values that, as a whole, form a general philosophy about the role of government.

5

political socialization

life long process of individuals learning political attitudes and behavior.

6

agencies of socialization

family, social groups, education, political groups.

7

gender gap

voting pattern differences between men and women.

8

false! gender gap

refers to the difference in income between men and women - false.

9

conservatism ideology

support social and economic status quo. don't trust large and powerful gov.

10

liberal ideology

extensive economic gov intervention. expansion of federal social services. efforts for the poor, minorities, and women. concerns for environment and consumers. equal political value.

11

types of media

broadcast, print, media

12

the newspaper

has most impact on society.

13

fairness doctrine

ensures reasonable opportunity for the opponent to air viewpoints on issue

14

right to rebuttal

person attacked on air is given a chance to respond to attack on air.

15

equal time rule

both opponents receive the same amount of time to present speeches

16

agenda setting

power of media to bring special attention to issue

17

primary vs. framing

-framing is the power of the media influencing peoples influence on events and issues

-primary is the power of media preparing the public to take a particular view on an event

18

political participation

a wide range of activities designed to influence the government.

19

suffrage

the right to vote. also called franchise.

20

voter turnout

people who actually vote

21

political mobilization

the process by which large numbers of people are organized for a political policy.

22

poll taxes

negatively effect political participation. (causes less voters.)

23

education

is correlated with political participation. (influence more voters.)

24

forms of political participation

lobbying, public relations, litigation, and protest.

25

voting age

18 years old

26

convention

every 4 years for each party

27

international vs. external mobilization

- internal occurs when conflict breaks out and public officials seek to mobilize popular support.

-external occurs when politicians outside government seek popular support to win governmental power.

28

number of party systems (6)

1- federalist vs. Jefferson republicans. (emerged in 1970 ended 1812)
2- democrats vs. whigs (emerged in 1830 ended few years before civil war)
3-6- republicans vs. democrats

29

new deal

5th party system, strong democratic party.

30

democrats

dominated in 1828-1860 and new deal to 1870. favored state rights and limited federal spending.

31

post civil war

3rd party system. democrat vs republican

32

realignment

occurs when a new party replaces an old dominant party.

33

divided government

where one party dominates the white house and the other party dominates at least one house party.

34

new deal coalition

democratic, union workers, upper middle class intellectuals, southern farmers, jews, catholics, african americans.

35

party organization

in america, parties are organized at basically all levels of national gov.

36

the platform

party document containing party philosophy, principles, and position issues.

37

mid term elections

off year elections. congress elections not interfering w/ pres. election

38

primary elections (open)

dont have to declare affiliation till end of election.

39

primary election (closed)

must declare affiliation before elections.

40

recall

power of citizens to take state officials out of office.

41

electoral college

has 538 delegates

42

majority system

receiving more than 50% of votes

43

plurality system

mostly used in U.S. candidate can win w/o 50%, but still must hold the most votes.

44

proportional representation

never used in America. more favorable to small, electoral parties.

45

the president cannot win the electoral vote w/o the popular vote.
true or false?

false.

46

iron triangle

a relationship between the congressional committee, fed. agency, and interest groups. they try to influence and control government policies.

47

issue network

a loose relationship of elected leaders, public officials, activists and interest groups.

48

amicus curiae

strategy used by interest groups. a friendly brief to the court.

49

types of interest groups

-ideological group (christian coalition)
-business and agricultural groups
-labor groups
-etc....

50

interest groups organizational structure

1. Leadership 2. Money 3. Membership 4. agency/office

51

redistricting

done every 10 years. legislature redraw the electoral state line.

52

only 2 states that dont use the winner takes all:

Main and Nebraska