political science exam two
the values and attitudes that people have about issues, events, and personalities.
the three most fundamental values are equality of opportunity, liberty, democracy.
amount of impact citizens feel they have on a government.
a complex set of beliefs and values that, as a whole, form a general philosophy about the role of government.
life long process of individuals learning political attitudes and behavior.
agencies of socialization
family, social groups, education, political groups.
voting pattern differences between men and women.
false! gender gap
refers to the difference in income between men and women - false.
support social and economic status quo. don't trust large and powerful gov.
extensive economic gov intervention. expansion of federal social services. efforts for the poor, minorities, and women. concerns for environment and consumers. equal political value.
types of media
broadcast, print, media
has most impact on society.
ensures reasonable opportunity for the opponent to air viewpoints on issue
right to rebuttal
person attacked on air is given a chance to respond to attack on air.
equal time rule
both opponents receive the same amount of time to present speeches
power of media to bring special attention to issue
primary vs. framing
-framing is the power of the media influencing peoples influence on events and issues
-primary is the power of media preparing the public to take a particular view on an event
a wide range of activities designed to influence the government.
the right to vote. also called franchise.
people who actually vote
the process by which large numbers of people are organized for a political policy.
negatively effect political participation. (causes less voters.)
is correlated with political participation. (influence more voters.)
forms of political participation
lobbying, public relations, litigation, and protest.
18 years old
every 4 years for each party
international vs. external mobilization
- internal occurs when conflict breaks out and public officials seek to mobilize popular support.
-external occurs when politicians outside government seek popular support to win governmental power.
number of party systems (6)
1- federalist vs. Jefferson republicans. (emerged in 1970 ended 1812)
2- democrats vs. whigs (emerged in 1830 ended few years before civil war)
3-6- republicans vs. democrats
5th party system, strong democratic party.
dominated in 1828-1860 and new deal to 1870. favored state rights and limited federal spending.
post civil war
3rd party system. democrat vs republican
occurs when a new party replaces an old dominant party.
where one party dominates the white house and the other party dominates at least one house party.
new deal coalition
democratic, union workers, upper middle class intellectuals, southern farmers, jews, catholics, african americans.
in america, parties are organized at basically all levels of national gov.
party document containing party philosophy, principles, and position issues.
mid term elections
off year elections. congress elections not interfering w/ pres. election
primary elections (open)
dont have to declare affiliation till end of election.
primary election (closed)
must declare affiliation before elections.
power of citizens to take state officials out of office.
has 538 delegates
receiving more than 50% of votes
mostly used in U.S. candidate can win w/o 50%, but still must hold the most votes.
never used in America. more favorable to small, electoral parties.
the president cannot win the electoral vote w/o the popular vote.
true or false?
a relationship between the congressional committee, fed. agency, and interest groups. they try to influence and control government policies.
a loose relationship of elected leaders, public officials, activists and interest groups.
strategy used by interest groups. a friendly brief to the court.
types of interest groups
-ideological group (christian coalition)
-business and agricultural groups
interest groups organizational structure
1. Leadership 2. Money 3. Membership 4. agency/office
done every 10 years. legislature redraw the electoral state line.
only 2 states that dont use the winner takes all:
Main and Nebraska