Marketing Management chapter 19 practice test

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1

1) ________ refers to the means by which firms attempt to inform, persuade, and remind consumers — directly or indirectly — about the products and brands they sell. A) Human resource development B) Marketing communications C) Financial management D) Operations management E) Planning

B

2

2) Which of the following elements of the marketing communications mix refers to any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor via print, broadcast, network, electronic, and display media? A) advertising B) personal selling C) sales promotion D) direct marketing E) public relations

A

3

3) Tracy works for a cellular phone company that offers trade-in allowances toward the upgrade of new phones, which is an example of ________. A) a sales promotion B) interactive marketing C) word-of-mouth marketing D) personal selling E) events and experiences

A

4

4) Which of the following elements of the marketing communications mix involves a variety of short-term incentives to encourage trial or purchase of a product or service? A) advertising B) direct marketing C) public relations D) personal selling E) sales promotion

E

5

5) Which of the following is an example of a trade promotion? A) free samples B) discount coupons C) display allowances D) contests for sales reps E) premiums

C

6

6) Which of the following is an example of a business and sales force promotion? A) advertising allowance B) free samples C) contests for sales reps D) display allowance E) discount coupons

C

7

7) ________ refer to the marketing communications element that involves company-sponsored activities and programs designed to create daily or special brand-related interactions with consumers. A) Publicity campaigns B) Trade promotions C) Advertisements D) Public relations E) Events and experiences

E

8

8) Which of the following elements of the marketing communications mix includes a variety of programs directed internally to employees of the company or externally to consumers, other firms, the government, and media to promote or protect a company's image or its individual product communications? A) direct marketing B) public relations and publicity C) personal selling D) advertising E) sales promotion

B

9

9) Which of the following elements of the marketing communication mix involves use of mail, telephone, fax, e-mail, or Internet to communicate with or solicit response or dialogue from specific customers and prospects? A) advertising B) personal selling C) direct marketing D) public relations E) sales promotion

C

10

10) ________ is an element of the marketing communications mix that involves online activities and programs designed to engage customers or prospects and directly or indirectly raise awareness, improve image, or elicit sales of products and services. A) Personal selling B) Direct marketing C) Sales promotion D) Interactive marketing E) Public relations

D

11

11) ________ is an element of the marketing communications mix that involves people-to-people oral, written, or electronic communications that relate to the merits or experiences of purchasing or using products or services. A) Personal selling B) Sales promotion C) Word-of-mouth marketing D) Public relations E) Advertising

C

12

12) Which of the following elements of the marketing communications mix involves face-to-face interaction with one or more prospective purchasers for the purpose of making presentations, answering questions, and procuring orders? A) advertising B) sales promotion C) word-of-mouth marketing D) public relations E) personal selling

E

13

13) Which of the following is an example of an advertising platform? A) posters and leaflets B) company magazines C) fairs and trade shows D) sales presentations E) continuity programs

A

14

14) Which of the following is an example of an events and experiences platform? A) fairs and trade shows B) continuity programs C) factory tours D) sales presentations E) community relations

C

15

15) Which of the following is an example of a public relations and publicity communication platform? A) lobbying B) company museums C) street activities D) company blogs E) incentive programs

A

16

16) Which of the following is an example of an interactive marketing communication platform? A) product demonstrations B) factory tours C) company museums D) TV shopping E) community relations

D

17

17) Which of the following is an example of a word-of-mouth marketing communication platform? A) chat rooms B) billboards C) factory tours D) incentive programs E) trade shows

A

18

18) Which of the following is an example of a personal selling communication platform? A) sales presentations B) company blogs C) telemarketing D) TV shopping E) press kits

A

19

19) The starting point in planning marketing communications is a ________ that profiles all interactions customers in the target market may have with the company and all its products and services. A) marketing budget B) communications audit C) market research program D) publicity campaign E) product launch

B

20

20) Along which of the following parameters should marketers evaluate communication options when building brand equity? A) popularity B) innovativeness C) technological sophistication D) efficiency E) novelty

D

21

21) Marketing communications allow companies to link their brands to other people, places, events, brands, experiences, feelings, and things.

TRUE

22

22) The rapid diffusion of multipurpose smart phones, broadband and wireless Internet connections, and ad-skipping digital video recorders (DVRs) have augmented the effectiveness of the mass media.

FALSE

23

23) The pervasive nature of advanced communications technologies, such as the Internet, has resulted in greater exposure of customers to advertising content than it was in the 1960s.

FALSE

24

24) Marketing communications in almost every medium and form have been on the rise, and some consumers feel they are increasingly invasive.

TRUE

25

25) In this new communication environment, advertising is often the single most important element of a marketing communications program for sales and building brand and customer equity.

FALSE

26

26) Personal selling refers to person-to-person oral, written, or electronic communications that relate to the merits or experiences of purchasing or using products or services.

FALSE

27

27) In building brand equity, marketers should be "media neutral" and evaluate all communication options on effectiveness and efficiency.

TRUE

28

28) Briefly describe the current marketing communications environment.

Technology and other factors have profoundly changed the way consumers process communications, and even whether they choose to process them at all. The rapid diffusion of multipurpose smart phones, broadband and wireless Internet connections, and ad-skipping digital video recorders (DVRs) have eroded the effectiveness of the mass media. In 1960, a company could reach 80 percent of US women with one 30-second commercial aired simultaneously on three TV networks: ABC, CBS, and NBC. Today, the same ad would have to run on 100 channels or more to achieve this marketing feat. Consumers not only have more choices of media, they can also decide whether and how they want to receive commercial content.

29

29) What are the elements of the marketing communications mix?

The marketing communications mix consists of eight major modes of communication: 1. Advertising — Any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor via print, broadcast, network, electronic, and display media. 2. Sales promotion — A variety of short-term incentives to encourage trial or purchase of a product or service including consumer promotions, trade promotions, and business and sales force promotions. 3. Events and experiences — Company-sponsored activities and programs designed to create daily or special brand-related interactions with consumers, including sports, arts, entertainment, and cause events as well as less formal activities. 4. Public relations and publicity — A variety of programs directed internally to employees of the company or externally to consumers, other firms, the government, and media to promote or protect a company's image or its individual product communications. 5. Direct marketing — Use of mail, telephone, fax, e-mail, or Internet to communicate directly with or solicit response or dialogue from specific customers and prospects. 6. Interactive marketing — Online activities and programs designed to engage customers or prospects and directly or indirectly raise awareness, improve image, or elicit sales of products and services. 7. Word-of-mouth marketing — People-to-people oral, written, or electronic communications that relate to the merits or experiences of purchasing or using products or services. 8. Personal selling — Face-to-face interaction with one or more prospective purchasers for the purpose of making presentations, answering questions, and procuring orders.

30

30) Which of the following benefits is offered by sales promotion tools? A) Sales promotion tools are more authentic and credible to buyers than others such as advertising, public relations, and personal selling. B) Sales promotion tools can reach prospects who prefer to avoid mass media and targeted promotions. C) Sales promotion tools are typically an indirect form of "soft-sell" and hence, better received by customers. D) Sales promotion tools incorporate some concession, inducement, or contribution that gives value to the consumer. E) Sales promotion tools allow buyers personal choices and encourage them to respond directly.

D

31

31) Which of the following statements correctly reflects a characteristic of public relations as a marketing communications tool? A) Public relations can reach prospects who prefer to avoid mass media and targeted promotions. B) They incorporate some concession, inducement, or contribution that gives value to the consumer. C) Given their live, real-time quality, public relations tools are more actively engaging for consumers. D) Public relations communications can be prepared to appeal to the addressed individual. E) Public relations tools create an immediate and interactive episode between two or more persons.

A

32

32) Aisha is a marketing manager with Injoos, a company that manufactures packaged fruit juices. Knowing that several other companies exist in the market that offer similar products, Aisha decides to build a customer base from among those who prefer to avoid mass media and other targeted promotions. Which of the following marketing communications tools would be her best option to build a favorable impression among the prospective customers? A) advertising B) personal selling C) sales promotions D) direct marketing E) public relations

E

33

33) Which of the following marketing communications tools is most effective at the later stages of the buying process? A) personal selling B) public relations C) advertising D) sales promotions E) direct marketing

A

34

34) Which of the following statements is true of the role of advertising in business markets? A) Advertising is unsuitable for explaining any new features that a product might have. B) Sales calls are more economical than reminder advertisements. C) Sales calls are more effective than advertisements at reminding customers how to use a product and reassure them about their purchase. D) Sales representatives can use copies of the company's ads to legitimize their company and products. E) Advertisements are the least preferred tools when intended to generate leads for sales representatives.

D

35

35) Which of the following circumstances are best suited for personal selling? A) when the products used are simple and easy-to-use B) when there is minimal risk involved in buying or using the products C) when the market has fewer and larger sellers D) when the products being marketed are inexpensive and easily available E) when prospective customers are spread across a wide geographic area

C

36

36) Which of the following marketing communications tools is most effective at influencing customers at the conviction stage of buyer readiness? A) advertising B) publicity C) sales promotion D) personal selling E) events and experiences

D

37

37) Which element of the marketing communications mix allows for amplified expressiveness? A) sales promotion B) public relations C) advertising D) direct and interactive marketing E) personal selling

C

38

38) Advertising and publicity tools play the most important roles in influencing buying decisions at the ________ stage of buyer readiness. A) comprehension B) conviction C) ordering D) reordering E) awareness-building

E

39

39) Which of the following tools or combinations of tools is most influential at the comprehension stage of buyer readiness? A) sales promotion and advertising B) advertising and personal selling C) publicity and personal selling D) reminder advertising and publicity E) sales promotion and personal selling

B

40

40) Which of the following marketing communications tools has the highest cost-effectiveness in the introduction stage of the product life cycle? A) personal selling B) sales promotion C) interactive marketing D) direct marketing E) events and experiences

E

41

41) Which of the following marketing communications tools is most influential at the maturity stage of a product's life cycle? A) sales promotions B) direct marketing C) advertising D) publicity E) interactive marketing

C

42

42) Luke is considering the various options available to him to promote an energy drink, Turbozade, that has decreasing sales volumes after having peaked some time back. Which of the following marketing communications tools should Luke focus marketing efforts on to keep the sales volume up? A) advertising B) direct marketing C) events and experiences D) sales promotions E) publicity

D

43

43) Which of the following marketing communications tools is most influential at the reordering stage of buyer readiness? A) events and experiences B) publicity C) direct marketing D) sales promotion E) interactive marketing

D

44

44) ________ is a measure of communications effectiveness that describes the percentage of target market exposed to a communication. A) Frequency B) Reach C) Width D) Depth E) Range

B

45

45) Advertising allows the buyer to receive and compare the messages of various competitors.

TRUE

46

46) Public relations is incapable of reaching prospects who prefer to avoid mass media and targeted promotions.

FALSE

47

47) In general, personal selling is used more with complex, expensive, and risky goods and in markets with fewer and larger sellers.

TRUE

48

48) Advertising and publicity play the most important roles in the conviction stage of buyer readiness.

FALSE

49

49) In the growth stage of a product's life cycle, demand has its own momentum through word of mouth and interactive marketing.

TRUE

50

56) Which of the following factors found in the macromodel of the communications process refers to random and competing messages that may interfere with the intended communication? A) negative feedback B) noise C) attenuation D) phase lag E) selective distortion

B

51

57) Which of the following is the correct order of stages that a buyer is assumed to pass through, by the four classic response hierarchy models? A) cognitive stage — affective stage — behavioral stage B) affective stage — cognitive stage — behavioral stage C) behavioral stage — affective stage — cognitive stage D) cognitive stage — behavioral stage — affective stage E) affective stage — behavioral stage — cognitive stage

A

52

58) LCH is a leading electronics company that produces and markets its own brand of desktop and laptop computers for both individual consumers and businesses. Which of the following sequences of consumer responses is relevant as a marketing communications model for LCH's products? A) learn-do-feel B) feel-learn-do C) do-feel-learn D) feel-do-learn E) do-learn-feel

C

53

59) LCH is a leading electronics company that produces and markets its own brand of desktop and laptop computers, for both individual consumers and businesses. During the planning process, LCH conducts a ________, which profiles all interactions customers in the target market may have with LCH, its computers, and its services. A) sales promotion B) brand association C) brand contact D) response hierarchy model E) communication audit

E

54

60) All response hierarchy models of the communication process assume the buyer passes through cognitive, affective, and behavioral stages, in that order. Which of the following product categories lends itself most appropriately to such a "learn-feel-do" sequence? A) clothes B) dishwashers C) real estate D) personal computer E) air tickets

C

55

61) When planning communications for a detergent brand, which of the following sequences of buyer responses should the marketer choose on which to base the communications model? A) feel-do-learn B) do-feel-learn C) feel-learn-do D) learn-do-feel E) learn-feel-do

D

56

62) Which of the following steps in the innovation-adoption model of marketing communications corresponds to the cognitive stage that a buyer passes through? A) interest B) evaluation C) trial D) awareness E) adoption

D

57

63) According to the hierarchy-of-effects model, which of the following corresponds to the behavioral stage that a buyer passes through? A) awareness B) knowledge C) purchase D) preference E) conviction

C

58

64) According to the hierarchy-of-effects model, which of the following corresponds to the affective stage that a buyer passes through? A) attention B) exposure C) reception D) adoption E) conviction

E

59

65) Which of the following sequences accurately represents the hierarchy-of-effects model of marketing communications? A) attention-interest-desire-action B) awareness-interest-evaluation-trial-adoption C) awareness-knowledge-liking-preference-conviction-purchase D) exposure-reception-cognitive response-attitude-intention-behavior E) knowledge-persuasion-decision-implementation-confirmation

C

60

66) The less the sender's field of experience overlaps that of the receiver, the more effective the message is likely to be.

FALSE

61

67) All the response hierarchy models assume that a buyer passes through affective, cognitive, and behavioral stages, in that order.

FALSE

62

68) A "do-feel-learn" response sequence is considered appropriate when the audience has high involvement but perceives little or no differentiation within the product category.

TRUE

63

69) If a small Iowa college builds awareness among applicants from Nebraska, increases the target audience's knowledge about its offerings, communicates in a way that makes the target audience like it and prefer it to other colleges, builds intent to apply, and gets the target audience to attend, they are using an AIDA model of consumer responses.

FALSE

64

70) If the Coolest Cooler introduced its cooler to the general market and developed communications around the idea that it was going to develop awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and then adoption, it would be using the innovation-adoption model of consumer responses.

TRUE

65

77) Marketing communication strategy can be decided by conducting an image analysis by profiling the target audience in terms of ________. A) brand knowledge B) purchase patterns C) demographic characteristics D) income levels E) psychographic characteristics

A

66

78) Which of the following is the marketing communications objective for a new-to-the-world product, such as electric cars? A) enhancing brand awareness B) developing brand attitude C) increasing brand purchase intention D) encouraging repeat purchases E) establishing category need

E

67

79) When Apple introduced the iPod in October, 2001, it was the first-of-its-kind product that offered sizable storage capacity for songs and a portable device that was not seen before in the market. Which of the following is most likely to have been the marketing communications objective for the iPod at the time of its introduction? A) developing brand awareness B) building customer traffic C) enhancing purchase actions D) establishing product category E) enhancing firm image

D

68

80) Which method for establishing the total marketing communications budget sets communication budgets to achieve the same amount of share-of-voice as competitors? A) comparative-parity method B) objective-and-task method C) affordable method D) competitive-parity method E) percentage-of-sales method

D

69

81) One of the possible objectives of marketing communications is helping consumers evaluate a brand's perceived ability to meet a currently relevant need. Which of the following is a negatively oriented relevant brand need? A) normal depletion B) sensory gratification C) social approval D) intellectual stimulation E) value enhancement

A

70

82) One of the possible objectives of marketing communications is helping consumers evaluate a brand's perceived ability to meet a currently relevant need. Which of the following is a positively oriented relevant brand need? A) problem removal B) social approval C) normal depletion D) problem avoidance E) incomplete satisfaction

B

71

83) One of the possible objectives of marketing communications is helping consumers evaluate a brand's perceived ability to meet a currently relevant need. Which of the following relevant brand needs is most likely emphasized by an advertisement for a luxury car? A) problem removal B) sensory gratification C) normal depletion D) intellectual stimulation E) problem avoidance

B

72

84) Creative strategies refer to the ________. A) way marketers translate their messages into a specific communication B) amount of creative content in a communications message C) degree of innovation involved in the marketing of a product D) novelty of a marketing communication E) type of medium used to deliver a marketing communication

A

73

85) A(n) ________ appeal is a creative strategy that elaborates on product or service attributes or benefits. A) aesthetic B) informational C) bandwagon D) emotional E) transformational

B

74

86) A(n) ________ appeal is a creative strategy that elaborates on a nonproduct-related benefit or image. A) logical B) transformational C) reasonable D) informational E) rational

B

75

87) Which of the following ads depict a transformational appeal? A) Thompson Water Seal can withstand intense rain, snow, and heat. B) DIRECTV offers better HD options than cable or other satellite operators. C) NBA phenomenon LeBron James pitching Nike, Sprite, and McDonald's. D) Pringles advertised "Once You Pop, the Fun Don't Stop" for years. E) Excedrin stops the toughest headache pain.

D

76

88) Which of the following ads depict an informational appeal? A) Thompson Water Seal can withstand intense rain, snow, and heat. B) The California Milk Processor Board ran the successful "Got Milk?" ad to boost declining sales. C) VW advertised to active, youthful people with its famed "Drivers Wanted" campaign. D) Pringles advertised "Once You Pop, the Fun Don't Stop" for years. E) KFC has marketed its fast-food products under the slogan, "Finger Lickin' Good."

A

77

89) ________ is one of the sources of a spokesperson's credibility that refers to the specialized knowledge that he or she claims to possess. A) Trustworthiness B) Expertise C) Acquaintance D) Likability E) Professionalism

B

78

90) ________ is a source of a spokesperson's credibility that describes how objective and honest the spokesperson is perceived to be. A) Likability B) Expertise C) Experience D) Trustworthiness E) Compassion

D

79

91) Which of the following sources of a spokesperson's credibility describes his or her attractiveness? A) expertise B) trustworthiness C) likability D) integrity E) experience

C

80

92) Which of the following marketing communications principles implies that communicators can use their good image to reduce some negative feelings toward a brand but in the process might lose some esteem with the audience? A) principle of closure B) principle of duality C) principle of delegation D) principle of congruity E) principle of neutrality

D

81

93) Which of the following personal communication channels consist of company salespeople contacting buyers in the target market? A) expert channels B) social channels C) advocate channels D) independent channels E) informal channels

C

82

94) Which of the following personal communications channels consist of family members, neighbors, friends, and associates talking to target buyers? A) expert channels B) advocate channels C) social channels D) formal channels E) sponsored channels

C

83

95) Top Gear is an award-winning British television series about motor vehicles, mainly cars. It is presented by hosts who test drive new cars and provide reviews on the cars' performance, their prices, and other factors. Which of the following personal communications channels is Top Gear closest to in description? A) expert channel B) formal channel C) social channel D) sponsored channel E) advocate channel

A

84

96) Personal influence in marketing communications carries great weight when the ________. A) product being marketed is a convenience item B) purchase of the product is considered to be safe and risk-free C) product suggests something about the user's status or taste D) product being marketed is purchased on a frequent basis E) product or service in questions is used without being recommended by others

C

85

97) Which of the following is a form of mass communications channel? A) interactive marketing B) personal selling C) public relations D) word-of-mouth marketing E) sales presentations

C

86

98) Which of the following statements is true of the two-step approach to mass communications? A) The influence of mass media on public opinion is more direct, powerful, and automatic than marketers have supposed. B) Communications through mass media bypasses opinion leaders and reaches the individual buyers. C) The two-step flow supports the notion that consumption styles are primarily influenced by a "trickle-down" or "trickle-up" effect from mass media. D) According to the two-step flow, people interact primarily within their own social groups and acquire ideas from opinion leaders in their groups. E) Two-step communication suggests that mass communicators should direct messages to groups of buyers who interpret the message and act accordingly.

D

87

99) Which of the following is a characteristic of the affordable method of establishing a marketing communications budget? A) fixed annual budget B) suitable for long-range planning C) priority given to role of promotion as an investment D) calculated to reflect what the company can spare for marketing communications E) based on the immediate impact of promotion on sales volume

D

88

100) Which of the following is NOT true about the two-step process by which mass communications affect personal attitudes? A) The influence of mass media is mediated by opinion leaders, people whose opinions others seek or who carry their opinions to others. B) The influence of mass media on public opinion is not as direct, powerful, and automatic as marketers have supposed. C) The two-step flow supports the notion that consumption styles are primarily influenced by a trickle-up or trickle-down effect from mass media. D) People interact primarily within their own social groups and acquire ideas from opinion leaders in their groups. E) Two-step communication suggests that mass communicators should direct messages specifically to opinion leaders and let them carry the message to others.

C

89

101) Gabrielle is the chief marketing officer of Boyd Pharmaceuticals. She is meeting with Trent, the chief financial officer to decide on the company's marketing communications budget. After extensive discussions, they decide that the size of the budget will be calculated as a fraction of the overall turnover. What method did Gabrielle and Trent use to arrive at the marketing communications budget? A) affordable method B) objective-and-task method C) competitive-parity method D) activity-based method E) percentage-of-sales method

E

90

102) Which of the following is an advantage of using the percentage-of-sales method to determine the marketing communications budget? A) The percentage-of-sales method encourages stability when competing firms spend approximately the same portion of their sales on communications. B) The percentage-of-sales method views sales as the determiner of communications rather than as the result. C) The percentage-of-sales method leads to a budget set by market opportunities rather than the availability of funds. D) The percentage-of-sales method encourages experimentation with countercyclical communication or aggressive spending. E) The percentage-of-sales method encourages building the communication budget by determining what each product and territory deserves.

A

91

103) Which of the following is a disadvantage of using a percentage-of-sales method to determine the marketing communications budget? A) It discourages stability when competing firms spend approximately the same percentage of their sales on communications. B) By using a percentage-of-sales method, communication expenditures tend to be extremely high irrespective of what a company can afford. C) It discourages management from thinking of the relationship among communication cost, selling price, and profit per unit. D) Dependence of the percentage-of-sales method on year-to-year sales fluctuations interferes with long-range planning. E) The percentage-of-sales method views sales as the result in itself rather than the determiner of communications.

D

92

104) Gabrielle is the chief marketing officer of Boyd Pharmaceuticals. She is meeting with Trent, the chief financial officer to decide on the company's marketing communications budget. They pore over the sales reports and other financial records and determine the amount of resources they can spare for marketing communications, after resources have been allocated to other functions, such as R&D, logistics, etc. What method did Gabrielle and Trent use to arrive at the marketing communications budget? A) objective-and-task method B) affordable method C) competitive-parity method D) activity-based method E) percentage-of-sales method

B

93

105) Gabrielle is the chief marketing officer of Boyd Pharmaceuticals. She is meeting with Trent, the chief financial officer to decide on the company's marketing communications budget. They decide to trust in the prevailing collective wisdom of the industry as a whole, and not wanting to instigate a communications war, settle on spending only as much as their nearest market rival does on marketing communications. What method did Gabrielle and Trent use to arrive at the marketing communications budget? A) objective-and-task method B) affordable method C) competitive-parity method D) activity-based method E) percentage-of-sales method

C

94

106) Marketing communications budgets tend to be higher when there ________. A) is high channel support B) exists hardly any change in the marketing program over time C) are infrequent product purchases in large quantities D) are differentiated products and nonhomogeneous customer needs E) are many easily reachable customers spread over small geographic territories

D

95

107) Qualities such as candor, humor, and naturalness make a spokesperson ________, which is an important component of spokesperson credibility. A) likable B) an expert C) trustworthy D) transformational E) informational

A

96

108) Though the target audience can be profiled in terms of demographic, psychographic, or behavioral segments, it is often useful to do so in terms of usage and loyalty.

TRUE

97

109) Marketers can set communications objectives at any level of the hierarchy-of-effects model.

TRUE

98

110) The marketing communications objective of "brand attitude" refers to helping consumers evaluate the brand's perceived ability to meet a currently relevant need.

TRUE

99

111) Problem removal and normal depletion are examples of positively oriented relevant brand needs.

FALSE

100

112) Communications effectiveness depends solely on the content of a message, irrespective of how it is expressed.

FALSE

101

113) Volkswagen's famed "Drivers Wanted" advertising campaign aimed at attracting active, youthful people uses a transformational appeal as its creative strategy.

TRUE

102

114) One-sided presentations that praise a product are found to be more effective than two-sided arguments that also mention shortcomings.

FALSE

103

115) Two-sided messages are more effective with more educated audiences and those who are initially opposed.

TRUE

104

116) In a one-sided message, presenting the strongest argument first arouses attention and interest, important in media where the audience often does not attend to the whole message.

TRUE

105

117) Fear appeals work best when they are rather strong and reinforce what the audience already believes.

FALSE

106

118) If messages are too conflicting, audiences will counterargue and disbelieve them.

TRUE

107

119) Motivational or "borrowed interest" devices — such as the presence of cute babies, frisky puppies, popular music, or provocative sex appeals — are often employed to attract attention and raise involvement with an ad.

TRUE

108

120) Celebrities are likely to be effective when they are credible or personify a key product attribute.

TRUE

109

121) Trustworthiness is that source of a spokesperson's credibility that describes his or her attractiveness.

FALSE

110

122) The most highly credible source would score high on at least two of the three dimensions — expertise, trustworthiness, and likability.

FALSE

111

123) The principle of congruity implies that communicators can use their good image to reduce some negative feelings toward a brand but in the process might lose some esteem with the audience.

TRUE

112

124) The beginning communications objective associated with a new-to-the world product — like an electric car — is always establishing category need.

TRUE

113

125) Personal communications channels derive their effectiveness from individualized presentation and feedback and include direct and interactive marketing, word-of-mouth marketing, and personal selling.

TRUE

114

126) Personal influence carries especially great weight when products are inexpensive, risk-free, or purchased frequently.

FALSE

115

127) Although personal communication is often more effective than mass communication, mass media might be the major means of stimulating personal communication.

TRUE

116

128) The two-step flow supports the notion that consumption styles are primarily influenced by a "trickle-down" or "trickle-up" effect from mass media.

FALSE

117

129) Two-step communication suggests that mass communicators should direct messages specifically to opinion leaders and let them carry the message to others.

TRUE

118

130) The percentage-of-sales method leads to a budget set by market opportunities rather than by the availability of funds.

FALSE

119

131) Marketing communications budgets tend to be higher when there is much change in the marketing program over time and more complex customer decision making.

TRUE

120

143) As Ben manages communications for his company's watch brand, which has reached the decline stage in the product life cycle, which of the following marketing communications mix tools is he most likely to continue? A) interactive marketing B) advertising C) personal selling D) direct marketing E) sales promotion

E

121

144) Stacey wants to use a highly relevant, engaging, and implicit communications mix mode to use a "soft sell" approach for her new makeup line. The communications mix mode that has these characteristics is ________. A) sales promotions B) events and experiences C) advertising D) direct and interactive marketing E) personal selling

B

122

145) Which of the following is NOT one of the four important contributions an effectively trained company sales force can make to consumer marketing? A) remind end-consumers about the product B) increase stock position C) build enthusiasm D) conduct missionary selling E) manage key accounts

A

123

146) The most effective communications mix tool at later stages of the buying process is ________ because it is particularly effective at building buyer preference, conviction, and action. A) sales promotions B) personal selling C) advertising D) direct and interactive marketing E) events

B

124

147) ________ refers to a planning process designed to assure that all brand contacts received by a customer or prospect for a product, service, or organization are relevant to that person and consistent over time. A) Brand engagement B) Integrated marketing communications C) Market research D) Customerization E) Marketing research

B

125

148) Media coordination can occur across and within media types, but marketers should combine personal and nonpersonal communications channels through multiple-vehicle, multiple-stage campaigns to achieve maximum impact and increase message reach and impact.

TRUE

126

149) By using full-service marketing communications agencies, integrated and more effective marketing communications at a much lower total communications cost can be achieved.

TRUE