The way in which thinking and reasoning changes and grows.
An infant learns through interacting with the environment - through their senses and movements.
Intentionally repeating actions that bring pleasurable results.
The understanding that something continues to exist even if it can’t be seen, touched, or heard.
Mental structures or concepts; cognitive frameworks.
Interpreting new experiences into our existing schemas.
Changing our existing schemas to incorporate new information.
Inability to see a situation from another's point of view.
The belief that inanimate objects (such as toys and teddy bears) have human feelings and intentions.
The understanding that something stays the same in quantity even though its appearance changes.
Nonmaterial concepts that exist only in the mind and cannot be seen or touched.
Having a grand vision for yourself and the world that may be unrealistic.
The child is egocentric and illogical, but very imaginative (as evidenced by drawing, writing, speaking, and pretend play).
Formal operational stage
Now able to understand abstract ideas present in advanced math, literature, science, and philosophy.
The ability, arising in the concrete operational stage, to group objects together according to different features.
Concrete operational stage
Children become less egocentric and think in an increasingly logical manner, though they struggle to think abstractly or hypothetically.