Jean Piaget

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1

Cognitive development

The way in which thinking and reasoning changes and grows.

2

Sensorimotor stage

An infant learns through interacting with the environment - through their senses and movements.

3

Circular reactions

Intentionally repeating actions that bring pleasurable results.

4

Object permanence

The understanding that something continues to exist even if it can’t be seen, touched, or heard.

5

Schemas

Mental structures or concepts; cognitive frameworks.

6

Assimilation

Interpreting new experiences into our existing schemas.

7

Accommodation

Changing our existing schemas to incorporate new information.

8

Egocentrism

Inability to see a situation from another's point of view.

9

Animism

The belief that inanimate objects (such as toys and teddy bears) have human feelings and intentions.

10

Conservation

The understanding that something stays the same in quantity even though its appearance changes.

11

Abstract ideas

Nonmaterial concepts that exist only in the mind and cannot be seen or touched.

12

Idealistic

Having a grand vision for yourself and the world that may be unrealistic.

13

Preoperational stage

The child is egocentric and illogical, but very imaginative (as evidenced by drawing, writing, speaking, and pretend play).

14

Formal operational stage

Now able to understand abstract ideas present in advanced math, literature, science, and philosophy.

15

Classification

The ability, arising in the concrete operational stage, to group objects together according to different features.

16

Concrete operational stage

Children become less egocentric and think in an increasingly logical manner, though they struggle to think abstractly or hypothetically.