Lecture Quiz 6 & 7

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Anatomy and Physiology 233
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1

How will the lungs compensate for an acute rise in the partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood?

partial pressure gradient

2

Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathing include ________.

voluntary cortical control

3

Hyperventilation can cause ______.

Low PCO2

4

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.

diffusion

5

Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.

1. major calyx
2. minor calyx
3. nephron
4. urethra
5. ureter
6. collecting duct

3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4

6

Reduced alveolar ventilation lead to ______________.

pulmonary vessels serving these alveoli constrict

7

Select the correct statement about the nephrons.

The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.

8

Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?

partial pressure gradient

9

Select the correct statement about the neural mechanisms of respiratory control.

The pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to expiration.

10

The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.

arcuate

11

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________.

stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

12

The filtration membrane includes all except ________.

renal fascia

13

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.

by a decrease in the blood pressure

14

The local matching of blood flow with ventilation is ________.

ventilation-perfusion coupling

15

The most important factor in regulating depth and rate of breathing is

PCO2

16

The renal corpuscle is made up of ________.

Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

17

The urinary bladder is composed of ________ epithelium.

transitional

18

Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?

macula densa cells

19

Which center is located in the pons?

pontine respirator group (PRG)

20

Which of the following caries oxygenated blood to the lungs?

bronchial arteries

21

Which of the following is a correct statement.

The oxygen partial pressure in the alveoli is 104 mm Hg

22

Which of the following is involved in inflation reflex?

aka Hering-Breuer reflex

is activated by stretch receptors

it sends inhibitory signals to medullary to end inspiration

all of the above

23

Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?

rising blood pressure

24

Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle?

a vasa recta

25

Which statement about CO2 is incorrect?

More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.

26
card image

Calculate the net filtration pressure if blood pressure in the glomerulus is unusually high, around 68 mm Hg.

23 mm Hg

27

Chemicals that enhance urinary output are called __________.

diuretics

28

In what part of the renal tubule are aquaporins scarce or absent so that water CANNOT be reabsorbed?

Ascending limb of the nephron loop

29

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________.

increase in the production of ADH

30

If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?

Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.

31

If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid ________.

will appear in the urine

32

Na is transported out of the kidney tubules mainly by

Na+-K+ ATPase pumps

33

Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________.

secondary active transport

34

Substances can be reabsorbed if they

have carriers

are lipid soluble

are too small enough to pass through membrane pores

all of the above

35

The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________.

glomerular hydrostatic pressure

36

The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________.

plasma protein

37

The function of angiotensin II is to ________.

constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

38

The glomerulus is more efficient than any other capillary beds because _____________.

the filtration membrane is more permeable

39

The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.

osmosis

40

The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ________.

loop of Henle

41

The movement of Na from the interstitial fluid into the peritubular capillaries is due to

low hydrostatic pressure

42

The osmotic gradient in the renal medulla is maintained by __________ , aka ________.

vasa recta, countercurrent exchanger

43

What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?

Net filtration would decrease.

44

Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method?

electrolyte levels

45

Which of the following is involved in urine formation?

reabsorption

filtration

secretion

all of the above

46

Which of the following is true regarding tubular secretion?

The substances move from peritubular capillaries or tubule into filtrate

It eliminates undesirable substances such as urea.

It controls blood pH.

all of the above

47

Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?

creatinine

48

Which of the following is not true regarding tubular reabsorption?

It is a purely passive transport process.

49

Which of the following segments is not involved in Na+ reabsorption?

ascending limb of loop of Henle

50

Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?

ADH