The Urinary System

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1

Adipose tissue is one of the most hydrated of all tissues in the human body.
True/False

False

2

A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates ________.
a. respiratory acidosis b. respiratory alkalosis c. metabolic acidosis d. metabolic alkalosis

a. respiratory acidosis

3

After completing a marathon on a particularly warm day, Dave consumes four liters of water. Soon after, he begins to feel nauseous and starts vomiting. What is likely happening to Dave?
a. hyponatremia; very low extracellular sodium ion concentration b. dehydration c. hypoproteinemia; unusually low levels of plasma proteins d. obligatory water loss

a. hyponatremia; very low extracellular sodium ion concentration

4

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.
a. is not reabsorbed by the tubule cells b. increases the rate of glomerular filtration c. increases secretion of ADH d. inhibits the release of ADH

d. inhibits the release of ADH

5

Although the sodium content of the body may be altered, its concentration in the ECF remains relatively stable because of immediate adjustments in water volume.

True/False

True

6

An important physical characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ________.
a. the same as water
b. slightly higher than water
c. much higher than water
d. less than water

b. slightly higher than water

7

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________.
a. decrease in the production of ADH b. increase in the production of ADH c. increase in the production of aldosterone d. decrease in the concentration of the blood plasma

b. increase in the production of ADH

8

Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted French fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese. How will consuming this much salt affect her physiology?
a. It will cause a prolonged increase in the osmolality of the blood. b. There will be a temporary increase in blood volume. c. She will experience hypotension. d. There will be a shift in the pH of her body fluids to the higher side of the pH scale.

b. There will be a temporary increase in blood volume.

9

A patient is breathing slowly, and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosis?
a. respiratory acidosis b. metabolic acidosis c. metabolic alkalosis d. respiratory alkalosis

c. metabolic alkalosis

10

As ventilation increases and more carbon dioxide is removed from the blood, the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood decreases.
True/False

True

11

Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits sodium reabsorption.

True/False

True

12

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to ________.
a. enhance atrial contractions b. activate the renin-angiotensin mechanism c. prevent pH changes caused by organic acids d. reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention

d. reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention

13

Blood in the urine may be a symptom of bladder cancer.
True/False

True

14

Blood pressure in the renal glomerulus is lower than in most parts of the body in order to conserve body water.
True/False

False

15

Blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells.

Peritubular capillaries

16

Both the male and female urethras serve both the urinary and the reproductive systems.
True/False

False

17

Calcium depletion.

Hypocalcemia

18

Cells and transport proteins are physically prevented from passing through the filtration membrane. This has the following effect on filtration.
a. increased osmotic pressure in the filtrate that draws plasma through the membrane b. decreased osmotic pressure in the filtrate that increases the amount of filtration c. increasing osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries that reduces the amount of filtration d. neutral change in osmotic pressure with no effect on filtration

c. increasing osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries that reduces the amount of filtration

19

Dissociate into ions in water.

Electrolytes

20

Do not dissociate in solution.

Nonelectrolytes

21

Electrolytes determine most of the chemical and physical reactions of body fluids.
True/False

True

22

Except for potassium ions, tubular secretion of most unwanted substances occurs in the ________.
a. proximal convoluted tubule b. nephron loop c. distal convoluted tubule d. collecting duct

a. proximal convoluted tubule

23

Falling arterial blood pressure promotes ________.
a. vasodilation
b. enhanced sodium ion loss in urine
c. enhanced water loss in urine
d. vasoconstriction

d. vasoconstriction

24

Fenestrated vessels that allow passage of all plasma elements but not blood cells.

Glomerular capillaries

25

Fluid in the spaces between cells.

Interstitial

26

Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process.
True/False

False

27

Having a kinked ureter is called renal ptosis.
True/False

false

28

Heavy consumption of salt substitutes high in potassium can present a serious clinical problem when aldosterone release is not normal.
True/False

True

29

High blood pressure triggers granular cells of the juxtaglomerular complex to release renin.

True/False

False

30

High-pressure vessel that forces fluid and solutes into the glomerular capsule.

Afferent arterioles

31

If blood pressure drops very low (MAP is below 80mmHg) renin enzyme will be secreted by granular cells. Which of the following is NOT likely to occur?
a. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) will decrease. b. Net filtration pressure (NFP) will decrease. c. Blood plasma and extracellular fluids volume will increase. d. Kidney perfusion will increase.

d. Kidney perfusion will increase

32

If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?
a. The glucose molecule is too large to be filtered out of the blood. b. Most of the glucose is filtered out of the blood and is not reabsorbed in the convoluted tubules. c. 100% of glucose is reabsorbed. d. The clearance value of glucose is relatively high in a healthy adult.

c. 100% of glucose is reabsorbed.

33

If the diameter of the efferent arterioles leading away from the glomerulus decreases (vasoconstriction), which of the following is NOT likely to occur?
a. Glomerular filtration rate will increase. b. Net filtration pressure will increase. c. Urine output will increase. d. Systemic blood pressure will go up.

d. Systemic blood pressure will go up.

34

If the diameter of the efferent arterioles leading away from the glomerulus increases (vasodilation), which of the following is NOT likely to occur?
a. Glomerular filtration rate will decrease. b. Net filtration pressure will decrease. c. Urine output will decrease. d. Systemic blood pressure will decrease.

d. Systemic blood pressure will decrease.

35

If the GFR is too low, needed substances may pass so quickly through the renal tubules that they are not absorbed and instead are lost in the urine.
True/False

False

36

In a car accident, Jane suffered a chest injury that resulted in impaired breathing and respiratory acidosis. How will her body compensate for this imbalance?
a. Kidneys retain hydrogen ions. b. Kidneys retain bicarbonate ions. c. Kidneys eliminate bicarbonate ions. d. Kidneys eliminate carbon dioxide.

b. Kidneys retain bicarbonate ions.

37

Insufficient parathyroid hormone production in the body could result in ________.
a. muscle twitching b. cardiac arrhythmia c. muscle weakness d. kidney stones

a. muscle twitching

38

It is impossible to overhydrate because people need as much water as they can drink to carry out ordinary body functions.
True/False

False

39

Low pressure, porous vessels that reabsorb solutes and water from the tubule cells.

Peritubular capillaries

40

Magnesium excess.

Hypermagnesemia

41

May form meandering vessels or bundles of long straight vessels.

Efferent arterioles

42

Nancy is experiencing an acute panic attack. While hyperventilating, she remembers to open a paper bag and breathe into it. What is Nancy trying to prevent?
a. respiratory acidosis b. metabolic alkalosis c. respiratory alkalosis d. metabolic acidosis

c. respiratory alkalosis

43

Obligatory water loss occurs because humans always take in more fluids through eating and drinking than they need to maintain water balance.
True/False

False

44

Play a role in urine concentration.

Vasa recta

45

Potassium excess.

Hyperkalemia

46

Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________.
a. facilitated diffusion b. passive transport c. countertransport d. secondary active transport

d. secondary active transport

47

Reabsorption of nutrients like glucose and amino acids takes place in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) via cotransporters that utilize secondary active transport. Which of the following would stop the reabsorption of glucose at the apical surface of the cells in the PCT?
a. increasing Na+ concentration in the filtrate b. increasing Na+ in the interstitial fluid c. loss of Na+-K+ ATPase in the basolateral surface of PCT cells d. loss of K+ leak channels at the apical surface

c. loss of Na+-K+ ATPase in the basolateral surface of PCT cells

48

Regulates sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid.

Aldosterone

49

Respiratory acidosis results when lungs are obstructed and gas exchange is inefficient.
True/False

True

50

Salts are lost from the body in perspiration and urine only.
True/False

False

51

Select the correct statement about the nephrons.
a. The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium. b. The glomerulus is correctly described as the proximal end of the proximal convoluted tubule. c. Podocytes are the branching epithelial cells that line the tubules of the nephron. d. Filtration slits are the pores that give fenestrated capillaries their name.

a. The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.

52

Site at which most of the tubular reabsorption occurs

Proximal convoluted tubule

53

Site of filtrate formation.

Glomerulus

54

Site that drains the distal convoluted tubule.

Collecting duct

55

Sodium depletion.

Hyponatremia

56

Sodium excess.

Hypernatremia

57

Some potassium ions are reabsorbed from the kidney filtrate via type A intercalated cells, a unique population of collecting duct cells.
True/False

True

58

The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.
a. lobar b. arcuate c. interlobar d. cortical radiate

b. arcuate

59

The body's water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?
a. calcium ions b. potassium ions c. hydrogen ions d. sodium ions

. d. sodium ions

60

The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________.
a. the ionic electrochemical gradient b. protein-regulated diffusion c. glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure) d. the size of the pores in the basement membrane of the capillaries

c. glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)

61

The collecting duct is impermeable to water in the presence of ADH.
True/False

false

62

The descending limb of the nephron loop ________.
a. is not permeable to water b. is freely permeable to sodium and urea c. pulls water by osmosis into the lumen of the tubule d. contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

d. contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

63

The factor that promotes filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________.
a. colloid osmotic pressure of the blood b. glomerular hydrostatic pressure c. capsular hydrostatic pressure d. myogenic mechanism

b. glomerular hydrostatic pressure

64

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________.
a. ensures adequate energy for the adrenal glands to operate efficiently b. stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position c. is necessary as a barrier between the adrenal glands and kidneys d. produces vitamin D and other chemicals needed by the kidney

b. stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

65

The filtration membrane includes all EXCEPT ________.
a. glomerular endothelium b. podocytes c. renal fascia d. basement membrane

c. renal fascia

66

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.

a. nephron b. nephron loop c. glomerular capsule d. capsular space

a. nephron

67

The glomerular capsular space contains ________.
a. urine b. blood c. filtrate d. plasma

c. filtrate

68

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.
a. when the peritubular capillaries are dilated b. when the pH of the urine decreases c. by a decrease in the blood pressure d. when the specific gravity of urine rises above 1.10

c. by a decrease in the blood pressure

69

The main fluid compartment located within the cell.

intracellular

70

The main fluid compartment outside the cells.

Extracellular

71

The maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of ________.
a. the control of respiratory ventilation b. the operation of the various buffer systems in the stomach c. the active secretion of OH- into the filtrate by the kidney tubule cells d. control of the acids produced in the stomach

a. the control of respiratory ventilation

72

The maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of ________.
a. the control of respiratory ventilation b. the operation of the various buffer systems in the stomach c. the active secretion of OH- into the filtrate by the kidney tubule cells d. control of the acids produced in the stomach

a. the control of respiratory ventilation

73

The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ________.
a. nephron loop b. glomerular filtration membrane c. collecting duct d. distal convoluted tubule

a. nephron loop

74

The myogenic mechanism reflects the tendency of vascular smooth muscle to stretch.
True/False

False

75

The normal pH of blood is 7.35-7.45.
True/False

True

76

The path urine takes after it is formed until it leaves the body is the urethra, urinary bladder, and finally the ureter.
True/False

False

77

The position of the kidneys behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is described by the term retroperitoneal.
True/False

True

78

The presence of protein in the urine indicates which of the following?
a. too much protein in the diet b. high levels of transcription and translation by the bodies tissues c. damage to the filtration membrane d. damage to the renal tubules

c. damage to the filtration membrane

79

The regulation of sodium ________.
a. is due to specific sodium receptors in the hypothalamus b. is linked to blood pressure c. involves aldosterone, a hormone that increases sodium excretion in the kidneys d. involves hypothalamic osmoreceptor detection of ion concentration

b. is linked to blood pressure

80

The single most important blood buffer system is the bicarbonate buffer system.
True/False

True

81

The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is ________.
a. the potassium ion content in the renal tubule cells b. the pH of the intracellular fluid c. intracellular sodium levels d. potassium ion concentration in extracellular fluid

d. potassium ion concentration in extracellular fluid

82

The thin segment of the nephron loop's descending limb ________.
a. helps to pack a greater number of nephron loops into a smaller space b. is easily broken and replaced often c. aids in the passive excretion of nitrogenous waste d. aids in the passive movement of water out of the tubule

d. aids in the passive movement of water out of the tubule

83

The thirst center in the brain is located in the hypothalamus.
True/False

True

84

The two hormones responsible for the regulation of calcium are pituitary hormone and calcitonin.
True/False

False

85

Thirst is normally triggered by hypothalamic osmoreceptors sensitive to a 1-2% increase in plasma osmolality.
True/False

True

86

To remain properly hydrated, water intake must equal water output.
True/False

True

87

Total body water is NOT a function of which of the following?
a. age b. body mass c. amount of body fat d. amount of water ingested

d. amount of water ingested

88

Tubular secretion is effective in controlling blood pH.
True/False

True

89

Weak acids are able to act as chemical buffering systems for the body because they only partially dissociate.

True/False

True

90

What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium ion and water retention?
a. antidiuretic hormone (ADH) b. aldosterone c. atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) d. thyroxine

c. atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

91

What is the effect of antidiuretic hormone on the cells of the collecting duct?
a. causes aquaporins to be inserted into the apical membranes b. triggers synthesis of more sodium channels in the apical membranes c. triggers synthesis of more potassium channels in the apical membranes d. inhibits sodium reabsorption through the apical membranes

a. causes aquaporins to be inserted into the apical membranes

92

When aldosterone release is inhibited, sodium reabsorption cannot occur beyond the distal convoluted tubule.
True/False

True

93

When antidiuretic hormone (ADH) levels are low, ________.
a. most of the water reaching the collecting ducts is not reabsorbed b. aquaporins are inserted into the collecting duct principal cell apical membranes c. nearly all of the filtered water is reabsorbed d. a small volume of concentrated urine is excreted

a. most of the water reaching the collecting ducts is not reabsorbed

94

When the blood becomes acidic (acidosis) and bicarbonate ions have been depleted, new bicarbonate ions must be generated in the plasma. Which of the following is NOT a means for replenishing bicarbonate ions?
a. Buffered hydrogen ions are excreted in urine. b. Ammonium ions are excreted in urine. c. Glutamine is metabolized by deamination, oxidation, and acidification. d. Bicarbonate ions are reclaimed by tubular reabsorption.

d. Bicarbonate ions are reclaimed by tubular reabsorption.

95

Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body?
a. ADH b. aldosterone c. water levels d. glucocorticoids

b. aldosterone

96

Which of the choices below is NOT a glomerular filtration rate control method?
a. renal autoregulation b. neural regulation c. electrolyte levels d. hormonal regulation

c. electrolyte levels

97

Which of the choices below is NOT a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH?
a. by secreting hydrogen ions into the filtrate b. by reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate ions c. by producing new bicarbonate ions d. by secreting sodium ions

d. by secreting sodium ions

98

Which of the choices below is the salt level-monitoring part of the nephron?
a. macula densa b. principal cell c. vasa recta d. nephron loop

a. macula densa

99

Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids?
a. K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids b. Na+ mainly in the cells, K+ in the body fluids c. equal amounts of each ion in the cells and body fluids d. little of either in the cells, but large amounts of each in the body fluids

a. K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids

100

Which of the following is NOT a chemical buffer system?
a. bicarbonate b. phosphate c. nitrogen d. protein

c. nitrogen

101

Which of the following is NOT a part of the juxtaglomerular complex?
a. granular cells b. macula densa c. podocyte cells d. mesangial cells

c. podocyte cells

102

Which of the following is NOT reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
a. Na+ b. K+ c. glucose d. creatinine

d. creatinine

103

Which of the following is the best explanation for why the cells of the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) contain so many mitochondria?
a. A great deal of active transport takes place in the PCT. b. Cells of the PCT go through a great deal of mitosis. c.Contraction of the PCT moves filtrate through the tubule. d. This provides the energy needed to fight kidney infection.

a. A great deal of active transport takes place in the PCT.

104

Which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts?
a. Nonelectrolytes are the controlling factor in directing fluid shifts. b. Electrolytes are not as important as proteins in regulating fluid shifts in the body. c. Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts. d. There are always more positive electrolytes than negative in a solution; it is therefore impossible to follow fluid shifts.

c. Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.

105

Which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts?
a. Nonelectrolytes are the controlling factor in directing fluid shifts. b. Electrolytes are not as important as proteins in regulating fluid shifts in the body. c. Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts. d. There are always more positive electrolytes than negative in a solution; it is therefore impossible to follow fluid shifts.

c. Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.