The Digestive System

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1

A child with restricted tongue movement may have a surgery that involves the cutting of the ________.
a. lingual frenulum b. palatine tonsils c. uvula d. terminal sulcus

a. lingual frenulum

2

A doctor consulting a patient that recently has had their gall bladder removed would likely advise ________.
a. eating a low to no carb diet b. eating fewer, but larger meals c. eating foods that are low in fat d. increasing unsaturated fats while eliminating trans fats in their diets

c. eating foods that are low in fat

3

All but one of the following is a function of the low pH found in the stomach. Select the description below that does NOT reflect a role of stomach acid.
a. Stomach acid denatures proteins making the poly peptide chain more accessible to pepsin digestive enzymes. b. Many potentially harmful bacteria will be prevented entry to the small intestine by stomach acid. c. The stomach's acid catabolically breaks down food stuffs in preparation for absorption. d. Low pH converts pepsinogen to its active form of pepsin, preventing the protease enzyme from digesting the cells that produce it.

c. The stomach's acid catabolically breaks down food stuffs in preparation for absorption.

4

All of the following are true of swallowing (deglutition) except one. Select the statement that is NOT true of swallowing.
a. The mouth, pharynx and esophagus all take part in swallowing. b. The voluntary phase of swallowing takes place within the mouth. c. The epiglottis assists in propelling food into the trachea. d. The involuntary portion of swallowing takes place in the pharynx.

c. The epiglottis assists in propelling food into the trachea

5

All the chemical and mechanical phases of digestion from the mouth through the small intestine are directed toward changing food into forms that can pass through the epithelial cells lining the mucosa into the underlying blood and lymphatic vessels.
True
False

True

6

Beta oxidation is the initial phase of fatty acid oxidation, and it occurs in the cytoplasm.
True/False

False

7

Breakdown of glycogen to release glucose.

glycogenolysis

8

Breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid.

glycolysis

9

Carbohydrate and fat pools are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy, but amino acid pools must first be converted to a carbohydrate intermediate before being sent through cellular respiration pathways.
True/False

True

10

Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________.
a. causes a decline in circulating ketone bodies b. builds up triglycerides during the postabsorptive state c. breaks down complex structures to simpler ones d. elevates glucagon levels

c. breaks down complex structures to simpler ones

11

Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.
a. mastication b. catabolism c. anabolism d. excretion

b. catabolism

12

Chemical or mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs into simpler units.

Digestion

13

Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include ________.
a. adequate essential amino acids b. adequate fat calories to provide adequate ATP formation c. excessive amounts of protein in the diet d. ammonia combining with oxygen to form urea

c. excessive amounts of protein in the diet

14

Conversion of fatty acids into acetyl groups.

beta oxidation

15

Dentin anchors the tooth in place.
True/False

False

16

Diets high in cholesterol and saturated fats tend to produce high HDL concentrations.
True/False

False

17

Digestion and absorption of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?
a. lipids b. carbohydrates c. proteins d. starches

a. lipids

18

During exercise, increased metabolic activity increases body heat, which then triggers sweating. Which of the following best describes the function of sweating?
a. infrared radiation b. direct conduction c. forced convection d. sensible evaporation

d. sensible evaporation

19

Enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule.

Hydrolosis

20

Except for lactose and some glycogen, the carbohydrates we ingest are mainly from animals.
True/False

False

21

Fats significantly delay the emptying of the stomach through hormonal and neuronal signals.
True
False

True

22

Formation of glucose from proteins or fats.

gluconeogenesis

23

Formation of ketone bodies.

ketogenesis

24

For use as fuel, all food carbohydrates are eventually transformed to glucose.
True/False

True

25

Gastric accommodation is an example of smooth muscle plasticity.
True/False

True

26

Glucose can be obtained from ________.
a. glycogenolysis b. triglyceride anabolism c. protein anabolism d. lipogenesis

a. glycogenolysis

27

Glucose sparing refers to the use of noncarbohydrate fuel molecules in the post absorptive state.
True/False

True

28

Glycogen accounts for 80-85% of stored energy in the body?

True/False

False

29

Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________.
a. conversion of glucose into carbon dioxide and water b. conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid c. conversion of pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water d. formation of sugar

b. conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid

30

Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.
a. ACh b. secretin c. gastrin d. histamine

b. secretin

31

Increases HCl secretion and stimulates contraction of intestinal muscle.

Gastrin

32

Increases output of enzymatic-rich pancreatic juice.

Cholecystokinin

33

Increases output of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate ions.

Secretin

34

In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ________ are converted to glucose.
a. glycerol b. glycogen c. acetyl Co A d. glucagon

a. glycerol

35

In India, rice is a large part of the diet. Lack of which vitamin in rice would lead to higher levels of blindness in this population?
a. vitamin A b. vitamin E c. vitamin C d. vitamin D

a. vitamin A

36

In the enteric nervous system, a long reflexive pathway has an advantage over a short reflexive pathway in the fact that ________.
a. long reflexive pathways last much longer than short reflexive pathways b. long reflexive pathways are quicker to respond than short reflexive pathways c. long reflexive pathways can be stimulated by things outside of the GI tract d. long reflexive pathways can respond throughout the entire length of the GI tract while short reflexive pathways can only respond in the proximal end

c. long reflexive pathways can be stimulated by things outside of the GI tract

37

It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________.
a. vitamins provide protection against the common cold
b. very few foods contain vitamins
c. most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
d. all vitamins are water soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure utilization

c. most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients

38

Lipogenesis occurs when ________.
a. there is a shortage of fatty acids b. glucose levels drop slightly c. excess proteins are transported through the cell membrane d. cellular ATP and glucose levels are high

d. cellular ATP and glucose levels are high

39

Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.
a. somatic neurons in the spinal cord b. the vagus nerve and enteric plexus c. the rubrospinal tracts d. the reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts

b. the vagus nerve and enteric plexus

40

Paneth cells ________.
a. secrete digestive enzymes b. secrete hormones c. secrete enzymes that kill bacteria d. secrete bicarbonate ions

c. secrete enzymes that kill bacteria

41

Peptides called NPY (neuropeptide Y) and AgRP (agouti-related peptides) are powerful appetite enhancers.
True/False

True

42

Peristaltic waves are ________.
a. segmental regions of the gastrointestinal tract b. churning movements of the gastrointestinal tract that aid in mechanical breakdown of chyme c. pendular movements of the gastrointestinal tract d. waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

d. waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

43

Process by which simpler chemical units pass through the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract into the blood or lymph.

Absorption

44

Select the best explanation for why protease enzymes are secreted in inactive forms.
a. The enzymes would digest each other if they were not properly regulated. b. The immunoglobulins protecting the digestive tract would be digested without proper regulation of protein digesting enzymes. c. The cells producing inactive enzymes are themselves protected from the enzymes until they are safely within the lumen of the GI tract. d. Inactive enzymes will simply be expelled with the feces if no protein is present in the digesting food; this will help to conserve energy.

c. The cells producing inactive enzymes are themselves protected from the enzymes until they are safely within the lumen of the GI tract.

45

Select the correct statement about proteins.
a. Strict vegetarians need not worry about adequate protein intake, as most vegetables are almost perfect sources of amino acids. b. All proteins can be synthesized in the body if most of the amino acids are present. c. Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested. d. Catabolic steroids (hormones) accelerate the rate of protein synthesis.

c. Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.

46

Select the one response below that would NOT result from a drug that blocks histamine receptors in the cells lining the stomach.
a. It would lower the activity of parietal cells. b. It would reduce the symptoms of heartburn. c. It would cause the release of secretin and cholecystokinin. d. It would raise the pH of the stomach.

c. It would cause the release of secretin and cholecystokinin.

47

Several hours after your last meal, declining blood glucose levels stimulate release of the hormone ________, which stimulates glycogenolysis, lipolysis and fat mobilization, and gluconeogenesis.
a. insulin b. thyroxine c. cortisol d. glucagon

d. glucagon

48

Severe diarrhea can diminish potassium ion absorption.
True/False

True

49

Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
a. amylase b. pepsin c. lipase d. chymotrypsin

lipase

50

Splitting of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids.

lipolysis

51

Stellate macrophages are found in the liver and are responsible for removing bacteria and worn-out cells.
True/False

True

52

Stimulates insulin release and mildly inhibits HCl production.

Gastric Inhibitory Peptide

53

Storage of glucose in the form of glycogen.

glycogenesis

54

Synthesis of lipids from glucose or amino acids.

lipogenesis

55

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
a. villi, and microvilli b. the vast array of digestive enzymes c. Brunner's glands and Peyer patches d. the rugae and haustra

a. villi, and microvilli

56

The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining basal metabolic rate (BMR).
a. norepinephrine
b. thyroxine
c. prolactin
d. ADH

b. thyroxine

57

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.
a. submucosa b. serosa c. adventitia d. lamina propria

d. lamina propria

58

The function of goblet cells is to ________.
a. absorb nutrients from digested food and store them for future use b. produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion c. secrete buffers in order to keep the pH of the digestive tract close to neutral d. provide protection against invading bacteria and other disease-causing organisms that enter the digestive tract in food

b. produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

59

The lamina propria is composed of ________.
a. loose connective tissue b. dense irregular connective tissue c. dense regular connective tissue d. reticular connective tissue

a. loose connective tissue

60

The major role of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) is to store energy in the form of fat.
True/False

False

61

The major stimulus for production of intestinal fluid is distention or irritation of the intestinal mucosa by hypertonic or acidic chyme.
True/False

True

62

The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.
a. in the glandular tissue that surround the organ lumen b. in the walls of the tract organs c. in the pons and medulla d. in the oral cavity

b. in the walls of the tract organs

63

The most abundant dietary lipids in the diets of most Americans are triglycerides.

True/False

True

64

The only essential function of the stomach is to begin the digestion of proteins.
True/False

False

65

The pancreas has both an endocrine and an exocrine function.
True/False

True

66

The peritoneum is the most extensive serous membrane in the body.
True/False

True

67

The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as ________.
a. gluconeogenesis b. glycogenesis c. lipogenesis d. lipolysis

d. lipolysis

68

The relatively unchanging pressure in a filling stomach is due to the contraction of the stomach oblique muscle layer.
True/False

False

69

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.
a. mesenteries b. lamina propria c. serosal lining d. mucosal lining

a. mesenteries

70

The splanchnic circulation refers to the arteries that serve the digestive organs and the veins that carry blood from the digestive organs to the liver.
True
False

True

71

The submucosal nerve plexus provides the major nerve supply to the GI tract wall and controls GI motility.
True
False

False

72

The "thermostat" or temperature regulator of the body is the ________.
a. thyroid b, thalamus c. hypothalamus d. pituitary

c. hypothalamus

73

Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino acid is ________.
a. transferred to acetyl CoA b. converted to urea c. transferred to a keto acid d. converted to ammonia

c. transferred to a keto acid

74

Wavelike smooth muscle contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube.

Parastalsis

75

What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases its activity, produces motion, or does work?
a. phosphorylation
b. beta oxidation
c. cellular respiration
d. glycolysis

a. phosphorylation

76

What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?
a. HCl b. pepsinogen c. intrinsic factor d. gastric lipase

c. intrinsic factor

77

When swallowing, the glottis covers the epiglottis.
True/False

False

78

Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the absorptive state?
a. growth hormone b. thyroid hormone c. epinephrine d. insulin

d. insulin

79

Which is NOT true of lipid absorption?
a. Fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed passively by diffusion. b. Products of lipid digestion are transported to the blood by the lymphatic system. c. Fatty acids and monoglycerides are packaged with proteins to form chylomicrons. d. Enterocytes require the presence of lipoprotein lipase to effectively absorb micelles.

d. Enterocytes require the presence of lipoprotein lipase to effectively absorb micelles.

80

Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)?
a. glycolysis, citric acid (Krebs) cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation b. gluconeogenesis, citric acid (Krebs) cycle, lipolysis c. lipolysis, glycogenolysis, beta oxidation d. glycogenesis, lipogenesis, electron transport chain

a. glycolysis, citric acid (Krebs) cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation

81

Which of the choices below is NOT a mechanism of heat production?
a. vasoconstriction of cutaneous blood vessels b. shivering c. sweating d. enhanced thyroxine release

c. sweating

82

Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state?
a. Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones. b. Catabolic processes exceed anabolic ones. c. No metabolism occurs. d. Only glucose metabolism occurs.

a. Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones

83

Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance?
a. Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis. b. It is a condition usually caused by having a diet low in fish and meat. c. A negative nitrogen balance is normal and is a way of maintaining homeostasis. d. It occurs when amino acids are broken down by liver enzymes and carried to the bloodstream.

a. Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.

84

Which of the following does NOT occur in the mitochondria?
a. electron transport b. glycolysis c. citric acid (Krebs) cycle d. formation of malic acid from fumaric acid

b. glycolysis

85

Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of the heat-promoting center?
a. release of epinephrine b. sympathetic sweat gland activation c. increase in ADH production d. vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels

a. release of epinephrine

86

Which of the following is correct?
a. Most of the ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation. b. Each FADH2 yields about 1.5 ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. c. Glycolysis relies on substrate-level oxidation for the four ATP produced in this pathway. d. Most ATP from cellular respiration are produced directly in the citric acid (Krebs) cycle.

b. Each FADH2 yields about 1.5 ATP via oxidative phosphorylation.

87

Which of the following is least involved in the mechanical breakdown of food, digestion, or absorption?
a. large intestine b. the oral cavity c. the esophagus d. the small ingestion

c. the esophagus

88

Which of the following is NOT a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?
a. thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus b. tight junctions of epithelial mucosa cells c. replacing of damaged epithelial mucosa cells d. secretion of pepsinogen

d. secretion of pepsinogen

89

Which of the following is NOT an important function of the liver?
a. carbohydrate and lipid metabolism b. synthesis of bile salts c. synthesis of vitamin K d. protein metabolism

c. synthesis of vitamin K

90

Which of the following is NOT found in saliva?
a. urea and uric acid b. electrolytes c. lysozyme d. protease

d. protease

91

Which of the following is NOT true of the basal metabolic rate (BMR)?
a. It is best calculated when the subject is in the absorptive state. b. It represents the amount of energy the body needs to perform only essential functions. c. It should account for body surface area. d. It is measured when the subject is reclining and at rest.

a. It is best calculated when the subject is in the absorptive state.

92

Which of the following is the best explanation of the benefit in the digestive system having the largest collection of lymphoid tissue (MALT) at the distal end of the small intestine?
a. The digestive systems first and foremost job is to digest and absorb nutrients so it puts off immunity for last. b. The huge numbers of bacteria living in the large intestine must be prevented from entering the lumen of the small intestine and being absorbed with food's nutrients into the blood stream. c. The body will actively excrete pathogens out of the body, into the digestive system, to be removed from the body in feces. d. The alkaline secretions of the small intestine aid in the growth of bacteria and these bacteria must be controlled.

b. The huge numbers of bacteria living in the large intestine must be prevented from entering the lumen of the small intestine and being absorbed with food's nutrients into the blood stream.

93

Which of the following is the major role of leptin in the body? a. promote weight loss with activity b. protect against weight loss during nutritional deprivation c. shrink fat stores d. increase appetite and food intake

b. protect against weight loss during nutritional deprivation

94

Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth? a. There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge. b. There are 27 permanent teeth, and the first molars are usually the last to emerge. c. The number of permanent teeth is always equal to the number of primary teeth. d. The number of upper permanent teeth is not equal to the number of lower permanent teeth.

a. There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.

95

Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?
a. parietal cells b. zymogenic cells c. mucous neck cells d. enteroendocrine cells

a. parietal cells

96

Which of the following provides a good source of complex carbohydrates?
a. fruit b. grain c. chicken breast d. vegetable oil

b. grain

97

Which of the following statements best describes complete protein?
a. derived from meat and fish only b. meets all the minimum daily requirements for a healthy diet c. derived only from legumes and other plant material d. must contain all the body's amino acid requirements for tissue maintenance and growth

d. must contain all the body's amino acid requirements for tissue maintenance and growth

98

Which of these is NOT a component of saliva?
a. lysozyme b. a cyanide derivative c. defensins d. metabolic waste

b. a cyanide derivative

99

Which type of food molecule provides components for cellular structures like plasma membranes, myelin sheaths, and steroid hormones?
a. lipids b. glucose c. complex carbohydrates d. protein

a. lipids

100

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
a. A b. B12 c. C d. K

b. B12

101

While traveling abroad in Africa you observe a large number of people with goiter (enlarged thyroid). Which mineral deficiency could be responsible for this?
a. chromium b. iron c. iodine d. fluorine

c. iodine

102

You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
a. gastrin b. amylase c. cholecystokinin d. trypsin

b. amylase