The Digestive System
A child with restricted tongue movement may have a surgery that
involves the cutting of the ________.
a. lingual frenulum b. palatine tonsils c. uvula d. terminal sulcus
a. lingual frenulum
A doctor consulting a patient that recently has had their gall
bladder removed would likely advise ________.
a. eating a low to no carb diet b. eating fewer, but larger meals c. eating foods that are low in fat d. increasing unsaturated fats while eliminating trans fats in their diets
c. eating foods that are low in fat
All but one of the following is a function of the low pH found in the
stomach. Select the description below that does NOT reflect a
role of stomach acid.
a. Stomach acid denatures proteins making the poly peptide chain more accessible to pepsin digestive enzymes. b. Many potentially harmful bacteria will be prevented entry to the small intestine by stomach acid. c. The stomach's acid catabolically breaks down food stuffs in preparation for absorption. d. Low pH converts pepsinogen to its active form of pepsin, preventing the protease enzyme from digesting the cells that produce it.
c. The stomach's acid catabolically breaks down food stuffs in preparation for absorption.
All of the following are true of swallowing (deglutition) except
one. Select the statement that is NOT true of swallowing.
a. The mouth, pharynx and esophagus all take part in swallowing. b. The voluntary phase of swallowing takes place within the mouth. c. The epiglottis assists in propelling food into the trachea. d. The involuntary portion of swallowing takes place in the pharynx.
c. The epiglottis assists in propelling food into the trachea
All the chemical and mechanical phases of digestion from the mouth
through the small intestine are directed toward changing food into
forms that can pass through the epithelial cells lining the mucosa
into the underlying blood and lymphatic vessels.
Beta oxidation is the initial phase of fatty acid oxidation, and it
occurs in the cytoplasm.
Breakdown of glycogen to release glucose.
Breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid.
Carbohydrate and fat pools are oxidized directly to produce cellular
energy, but amino acid pools must first be converted to a carbohydrate
intermediate before being sent through cellular respiration pathways.
Catabolism would be best described as a process that
a. causes a decline in circulating ketone bodies b. builds up triglycerides during the postabsorptive state c. breaks down complex structures to simpler ones d. elevates glucagon levels
c. breaks down complex structures to simpler ones
Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler
compounds by the process of ________.
a. mastication b. catabolism c. anabolism d. excretion
Chemical or mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs into simpler units.
Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of
amino acids include ________.
a. adequate essential amino acids b. adequate fat calories to provide adequate ATP formation c. excessive amounts of protein in the diet d. ammonia combining with oxygen to form urea
c. excessive amounts of protein in the diet
Conversion of fatty acids into acetyl groups.
Dentin anchors the tooth in place.
Diets high in cholesterol and saturated fats tend to produce high HDL
Digestion and absorption of which of the following would be affected
the most if the liver were severely damaged?
a. lipids b. carbohydrates c. proteins d. starches
During exercise, increased metabolic activity increases body heat,
which then triggers sweating. Which of the following best describes
the function of sweating?
a. infrared radiation b. direct conduction c. forced convection d. sensible evaporation
d. sensible evaporation
Enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule.
Except for lactose and some glycogen, the carbohydrates we ingest are
mainly from animals.
Fats significantly delay the emptying of the stomach through hormonal
and neuronal signals.
Formation of glucose from proteins or fats.
Formation of ketone bodies.
For use as fuel, all food carbohydrates are eventually transformed to
Gastric accommodation is an example of smooth muscle plasticity.
Glucose can be obtained from ________.
a. glycogenolysis b. triglyceride anabolism c. protein anabolism d. lipogenesis
Glucose sparing refers to the use of noncarbohydrate fuel molecules
in the post absorptive state.
Glycogen accounts for 80-85% of stored energy in the body?
Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the
a. conversion of glucose into carbon dioxide and water b. conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid c. conversion of pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water d. formation of sugar
b. conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include
a. ACh b. secretin c. gastrin d. histamine
Increases HCl secretion and stimulates contraction of intestinal muscle.
Increases output of enzymatic-rich pancreatic juice.
Increases output of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate ions.
In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and
________ are converted to glucose.
a. glycerol b. glycogen c. acetyl Co A d. glucagon
In India, rice is a large part of the diet. Lack of which vitamin in
rice would lead to higher levels of blindness in this
a. vitamin A b. vitamin E c. vitamin C d. vitamin D
a. vitamin A
In the enteric nervous system, a long reflexive pathway has an
advantage over a short reflexive pathway in the fact that
a. long reflexive pathways last much longer than short reflexive pathways b. long reflexive pathways are quicker to respond than short reflexive pathways c. long reflexive pathways can be stimulated by things outside of the GI tract d. long reflexive pathways can respond throughout the entire length of the GI tract while short reflexive pathways can only respond in the proximal end
c. long reflexive pathways can be stimulated by things outside of the GI tract
It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in
vitamins because ________.
a. vitamins provide protection against the common cold
b. very few foods contain vitamins
c. most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
d. all vitamins are water soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure utilization
c. most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
Lipogenesis occurs when ________.
a. there is a shortage of fatty acids b. glucose levels drop slightly c. excess proteins are transported through the cell membrane d. cellular ATP and glucose levels are high
d. cellular ATP and glucose levels are high
Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.
a. somatic neurons in the spinal cord b. the vagus nerve and enteric plexus c. the rubrospinal tracts d. the reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts
b. the vagus nerve and enteric plexus
Paneth cells ________.
a. secrete digestive enzymes b. secrete hormones c. secrete enzymes that kill bacteria d. secrete bicarbonate ions
c. secrete enzymes that kill bacteria
Peptides called NPY (neuropeptide Y) and AgRP (agouti-related
peptides) are powerful appetite enhancers.
Peristaltic waves are ________.
a. segmental regions of the gastrointestinal tract b. churning movements of the gastrointestinal tract that aid in mechanical breakdown of chyme c. pendular movements of the gastrointestinal tract d. waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another
d. waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another
Process by which simpler chemical units pass through the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract into the blood or lymph.
Select the best explanation for why protease enzymes are secreted in
a. The enzymes would digest each other if they were not properly regulated. b. The immunoglobulins protecting the digestive tract would be digested without proper regulation of protein digesting enzymes. c. The cells producing inactive enzymes are themselves protected from the enzymes until they are safely within the lumen of the GI tract. d. Inactive enzymes will simply be expelled with the feces if no protein is present in the digesting food; this will help to conserve energy.
c. The cells producing inactive enzymes are themselves protected from the enzymes until they are safely within the lumen of the GI tract.
Select the correct statement about proteins.
a. Strict vegetarians need not worry about adequate protein intake, as most vegetables are almost perfect sources of amino acids. b. All proteins can be synthesized in the body if most of the amino acids are present. c. Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested. d. Catabolic steroids (hormones) accelerate the rate of protein synthesis.
c. Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.
Select the one response below that would NOT result from a drug that
blocks histamine receptors in the cells lining the stomach.
a. It would lower the activity of parietal cells. b. It would reduce the symptoms of heartburn. c. It would cause the release of secretin and cholecystokinin. d. It would raise the pH of the stomach.
c. It would cause the release of secretin and cholecystokinin.
Several hours after your last meal, declining blood glucose levels
stimulate release of the hormone ________, which stimulates
glycogenolysis, lipolysis and fat mobilization, and
a. insulin b. thyroxine c. cortisol d. glucagon
Severe diarrhea can diminish potassium ion absorption.
Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules
in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption.
Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
a. amylase b. pepsin c. lipase d. chymotrypsin
Splitting of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids.
Stellate macrophages are found in the liver and are responsible for
removing bacteria and worn-out cells.
Stimulates insulin release and mildly inhibits HCl production.
Gastric Inhibitory Peptide
Storage of glucose in the form of glycogen.
Synthesis of lipids from glucose or amino acids.
The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by
increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the
following accomplish this task?
a. villi, and microvilli b. the vast array of digestive enzymes c. Brunner's glands and Peyer patches d. the rugae and haustra
a. villi, and microvilli
The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important
hormonal factor in determining basal metabolic rate (BMR).
The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested
nutrients lie in the ________.
a. submucosa b. serosa c. adventitia d. lamina propria
d. lamina propria
The function of goblet cells is to ________.
a. absorb nutrients from digested food and store them for future use b. produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion c. secrete buffers in order to keep the pH of the digestive tract close to neutral d. provide protection against invading bacteria and other disease-causing organisms that enter the digestive tract in food
b. produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
The lamina propria is composed of ________.
a. loose connective tissue b. dense irregular connective tissue c. dense regular connective tissue d. reticular connective tissue
a. loose connective tissue
The major role of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) is to store energy
in the form of fat.
The major stimulus for production of intestinal fluid is distention
or irritation of the intestinal mucosa by hypertonic or acidic
The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity
are located ________.
a. in the glandular tissue that surround the organ lumen b. in the walls of the tract organs c. in the pons and medulla d. in the oral cavity
b. in the walls of the tract organs
The most abundant dietary lipids in the diets of most Americans are triglycerides.
The only essential function of the stomach is to begin the digestion
The pancreas has both an endocrine and an exocrine function.
The peritoneum is the most extensive serous membrane in the body.
The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty
acids is known as ________.
a. gluconeogenesis b. glycogenesis c. lipogenesis d. lipolysis
The relatively unchanging pressure in a filling stomach is due to the
contraction of the stomach oblique muscle layer.
The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in
place are called ________.
a. mesenteries b. lamina propria c. serosal lining d. mucosal lining
The splanchnic circulation refers to the arteries that serve the
digestive organs and the veins that carry blood from the digestive
organs to the liver.
The submucosal nerve plexus provides the major nerve supply to the GI
tract wall and controls GI motility.
The "thermostat" or temperature regulator of the body is
a. thyroid b, thalamus c. hypothalamus d. pituitary
Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino
acid is ________.
a. transferred to acetyl CoA b. converted to urea c. transferred to a keto acid d. converted to ammonia
c. transferred to a keto acid
Wavelike smooth muscle contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube.
What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases its
activity, produces motion, or does work?
b. beta oxidation
c. cellular respiration
What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production
a. HCl b. pepsinogen c. intrinsic factor d. gastric lipase
c. intrinsic factor
When swallowing, the glottis covers the epiglottis.
Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the absorptive
a. growth hormone b. thyroid hormone c. epinephrine d. insulin
Which is NOT true of lipid absorption?
a. Fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed passively by diffusion. b. Products of lipid digestion are transported to the blood by the lymphatic system. c. Fatty acids and monoglycerides are packaged with proteins to form chylomicrons. d. Enterocytes require the presence of lipoprotein lipase to effectively absorb micelles.
d. Enterocytes require the presence of lipoprotein lipase to effectively absorb micelles.
Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular
respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)?
a. glycolysis, citric acid (Krebs) cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation b. gluconeogenesis, citric acid (Krebs) cycle, lipolysis c. lipolysis, glycogenolysis, beta oxidation d. glycogenesis, lipogenesis, electron transport chain
a. glycolysis, citric acid (Krebs) cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation
Which of the choices below is NOT a mechanism of heat
a. vasoconstriction of cutaneous blood vessels b. shivering c. sweating d. enhanced thyroxine release
Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive
a. Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones. b. Catabolic processes exceed anabolic ones. c. No metabolism occurs. d. Only glucose metabolism occurs.
a. Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones
Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen
a. Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis. b. It is a condition usually caused by having a diet low in fish and meat. c. A negative nitrogen balance is normal and is a way of maintaining homeostasis. d. It occurs when amino acids are broken down by liver enzymes and carried to the bloodstream.
a. Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.
Which of the following does NOT occur in the mitochondria?
a. electron transport b. glycolysis c. citric acid (Krebs) cycle d. formation of malic acid from fumaric acid
Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of
the heat-promoting center?
a. release of epinephrine b. sympathetic sweat gland activation c. increase in ADH production d. vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels
a. release of epinephrine
Which of the following is correct?
a. Most of the ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation. b. Each FADH2 yields about 1.5 ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. c. Glycolysis relies on substrate-level oxidation for the four ATP produced in this pathway. d. Most ATP from cellular respiration are produced directly in the citric acid (Krebs) cycle.
b. Each FADH2 yields about 1.5 ATP via oxidative phosphorylation.
Which of the following is least involved in the mechanical breakdown
of food, digestion, or absorption?
a. large intestine b. the oral cavity c. the esophagus d. the small ingestion
c. the esophagus
Which of the following is NOT a factor that helps create the stomach
a. thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus b. tight junctions of epithelial mucosa cells c. replacing of damaged epithelial mucosa cells d. secretion of pepsinogen
d. secretion of pepsinogen
Which of the following is NOT an important function of the
a. carbohydrate and lipid metabolism b. synthesis of bile salts c. synthesis of vitamin K d. protein metabolism
c. synthesis of vitamin K
Which of the following is NOT found in saliva?
a. urea and uric acid b. electrolytes c. lysozyme d. protease
Which of the following is NOT true of the basal metabolic rate
a. It is best calculated when the subject is in the absorptive state. b. It represents the amount of energy the body needs to perform only essential functions. c. It should account for body surface area. d. It is measured when the subject is reclining and at rest.
a. It is best calculated when the subject is in the absorptive state.
Which of the following is the best explanation of the benefit in the
digestive system having the largest collection of lymphoid tissue
(MALT) at the distal end of the small intestine?
a. The digestive systems first and foremost job is to digest and absorb nutrients so it puts off immunity for last. b. The huge numbers of bacteria living in the large intestine must be prevented from entering the lumen of the small intestine and being absorbed with food's nutrients into the blood stream. c. The body will actively excrete pathogens out of the body, into the digestive system, to be removed from the body in feces. d. The alkaline secretions of the small intestine aid in the growth of bacteria and these bacteria must be controlled.
b. The huge numbers of bacteria living in the large intestine must be prevented from entering the lumen of the small intestine and being absorbed with food's nutrients into the blood stream.
Which of the following is the major role of leptin in the body? a. promote weight loss with activity b. protect against weight loss during nutritional deprivation c. shrink fat stores d. increase appetite and food intake
b. protect against weight loss during nutritional deprivation
Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth? a. There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge. b. There are 27 permanent teeth, and the first molars are usually the last to emerge. c. The number of permanent teeth is always equal to the number of primary teeth. d. The number of upper permanent teeth is not equal to the number of lower permanent teeth.
a. There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.
Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?
a. parietal cells b. zymogenic cells c. mucous neck cells d. enteroendocrine cells
a. parietal cells
Which of the following provides a good source of complex
a. fruit b. grain c. chicken breast d. vegetable oil
Which of the following statements best describes complete
a. derived from meat and fish only b. meets all the minimum daily requirements for a healthy diet c. derived only from legumes and other plant material d. must contain all the body's amino acid requirements for tissue maintenance and growth
d. must contain all the body's amino acid requirements for tissue maintenance and growth
Which of these is NOT a component of saliva?
a. lysozyme b. a cyanide derivative c. defensins d. metabolic waste
b. a cyanide derivative
Which type of food molecule provides components for cellular
structures like plasma membranes, myelin sheaths, and steroid
a. lipids b. glucose c. complex carbohydrates d. protein
Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be
a. A b. B12 c. C d. K
While traveling abroad in Africa you observe a large number of people
with goiter (enlarged thyroid). Which mineral deficiency could be
responsible for this?
a. chromium b. iron c. iodine d. fluorine
You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of
the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
a. gastrin b. amylase c. cholecystokinin d. trypsin