The Respiratory System
A drop in blood pH is likely to cause a slower breathing rate.
As carbon dioxide enters systemic blood, it causes more oxygen to dissociate from hemoglobin (the Haldane effect), which in turn allows more CO2 to combine with hemoglobin and more bicarbonate ions to be generated (the Bohr effect). True/False
As the tension of vocal folds in the larynx increase, the voice
a. higher in pitch b. lower in pitch c. louder d. more distinct
a. higher in pitch
Atelectasis (lung collapse) renders the lung useless for ventilation.
Composed of simple squamous epithelium.
Type I alveolar cells
Dalton's law of partial pressures states that the total pressure
exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted
independently by each gas in the mixture.
During normal quiet breathing, males breathe 25% more than females.
Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathing include
a. thalamic control b. voluntary cortical control c. stretch receptors in the alveoli d. temperature of alveolar air
b. voluntary cortical control
Hemoglobin has a much greater affinity for carbon monoxide than
oxygen. Which principle explains why a hyperbaric chamber (containing
high levels of oxygen) can treat carbon monoxide poisoning?
a. Dalton's law b. Henry's law c. Boyle's law d. Charles' law
b. Henry's law
In chronic bronchitis, mucus production is decreased and this leads
to the inflammation and fibrosis of the mucosal lining of the
Inspiratory capacity is ________.
a. the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration b. the total amount of exchangeable air c. functional residual capacity d. air inspired after a tidal inhalation
a. the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration
In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is
a. only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in blood b. about equal to the oxygen combined with hemoglobin c. greater than the oxygen combined with hemoglobin d. not present except where it is combined with carrier molecules
a. only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in blood
Intrapleural pressure is normally about 4 mm Hg less than the
pressure in the alveoli.
Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.
a. pressure within the pleural cavity b. pressure within the alveoli of the lungs c. negative pressure in the intrapleural space d. difference between atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure
b. pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
Nasal conchae heat and moisten inhaled air, and reclaim heat and
moisture during exhalation.
Nasal conchae mainly work on inhalation to warm and moisten air. They
serve minor functions for exhalation.
NO exchange of gases occurs here.
Segmental (tertiary) bronchi
Oxygenated hemoglobin releases oxygen more readily when the pH is more basic.
Possible causes of hypoxia include ________.
a. too little oxygen in the atmosphere b. obstruction of the esophagus c. taking several rapid deep breaths d. getting very cold
a. too little oxygen in the atmosphere
Respiratory control centers are located in the ________.
a. midbrain and medulla b. medulla and pons c. pons and midbrain d. upper spinal cord and medulla
b. medulla and pons
Secrete a fluid containing surfactant.
Type II alveolar cells
Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood.
a. During normal activity, a molecule of hemoglobin returning to the lungs carries one molecule of O2. b. During conditions of acidosis, hemoglobin is able to carry oxygen more efficiently. c. Increased BPG levels in the red blood cells enhance oxygen-carrying capacity. d. A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.
d. A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.
Smoking diminishes ciliary action and eventually destroys the cilia.
Spirometry results reveal a vital capacity of two liters which is
well below the predicted value of five liters. This suggests which
a. obstructive pulmonary disease b. asthma c. restrictive disease d. emphysema
c. restrictive disease
Strong emotions and pain, acting through the limbic system and
hypothalamus, send signals to the respiratory centers that modulate
respiratory rate and depth.
Terminates in alveoli.
The Bohr effect refers to the unloading of ________ in a RBC due to
declining blood pH.
a. carbon dioxide b. oxygen c. BPG d. chloride ions
The erythrocyte (red blood cell) count increases after a while when
an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the
a. temperature is lower at higher altitudes b. basal metabolic rate is higher at high altitudes c. concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is higher at higher altitudes d. concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
d. concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
The functions of the nasal conchae are to enhance the air turbulence in the cavity and to increase the mucosal surface area exposed to the air. True/False
The largest amount of carbon dioxide is transported in the
bloodstream in the form of carbonic anhydrase.
The left lung differs from the right in that the left lung has
a. a cardiac notch b. an oblique fissure c. three lobes d. a wider and more vertical primary bronchus
a. a cardiac notch
The major nonelastic source of resistance to air flow in the
respiratory passageways is ________.
a. surfactant b. surface tension c. friction d. air pressure
The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy
person is ________.
a. loss of oxygen in tissues b. increase of carbon dioxide c. acidosis d. alkalosis
b. increase of carbon dioxide
The nose serves all of the following functions EXCEPT
a. as a passageway for air movement b. as the direct initiator of the cough reflex c. warming and humidifying the air d. cleansing the air
b. as the direct initiator of the cough reflex
The paired lungs occupy the mediastinum of the thoracic cavity.
The parietal pleura lines the thoracic wall.
The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the
sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture"
a. Henry's law b. Boyle's c. Dalton's law d. Charles' law
c. Dalton's law
The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I
and type II alveolar cells. The function of type II alveolar cells is
a. secrete surfactant b. trap dust and other debris c. replace mucus in the alveoli d. protect the lungs from bacterial invasion
a. secrete surfactant
Tidal volume is air ________.
a. remaining in the lungs after forced expiration b. exchanged during normal breathing c. inhaled after normal inspiration d. forcibly expelled after normal expiration
b. exchanged during normal breathing
Using spirometry, a patient discovers their forced expiratory volume
(FEV) after the first second is 40%. What does this suggest?
a. healthy lungs b. obstructive pulmonary disease c. restrictive disease d. exposure to asbestos
c. restrictive disease
Ventilation perfusion coupling means that more blood flows past
functional alveoli than past nonfunctional alveoli.
Where the respiratory zone of the lungs begins.
Which bone does NOT contain paranasal sinuses?
a. ethmoid b. frontal c. temporal d. maxillary
Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the
lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?
a. the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid b. compliance and transpulmonary pressures c. the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and transpulmonary pressures d. compliance and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid
a. the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid
Which of the choices below is NOT a factor that promotes oxygen
binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?
a. partial pressure of oxygen b. temperature c. partial pressure of carbon dioxide d. number of red blood cells
d. number of red blood cells
Which of the choices below is NOT a role of the pleurae?
a. allow the lungs to glide easily over the thorax wall during breathing movements b. help divide the thoracic cavity into three chambers c. help limit the spread of local infections d. assist in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs
d. assist in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs
Which of the following does NOT influence hemoglobin
a. temperature b. BPG c. partial pressure of carbon dioxide d. nitric oxide
d. nitric oxide
Which of the following is a conducting zone structure?
a. alveolar duct b. terminal bronchiole c. alveolar sac d. respiratory bronchiole
b. terminal bronchiole
Which of the following is an appropriate response to carbon monoxide
a. slow breathing into a paper bag b. immediate application of bicarbonate ions to facilitate removal of CO from Hb c. hyperventilation to exhale CO from the body d. hyperbaric oxygen chamber to increase PO2 and clear CO from the body
d. hyperbaric oxygen chamber to increase PO2 and clear CO from the body
Which of the following is correct regarding acclimatization?
a. At high altitudes, hemoglobin's affinity for O2 is increased because BPG concentrations increase. b. When blood O2 levels decline, the kidneys produce more erythropoietin, which stimulates breakdown of red blood cells in the spleen. c. High-altitude conditions always result in lower-than-normal hemoglobin saturation levels because less O2 is available to be loaded. d. Decreases in arterial PO2 cause the peripheral chemoreceptors to become less responsive to increases in PCO2.
c. High-altitude conditions always result in lower-than-normal hemoglobin saturation levels because less O2 is available to be loaded.
Which of the following is INCORRECT?
a. Gas flow equals pressure gradient over resistance. b. Pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance. c. Resistance equals pressure gradient over gas flow. d. The amount of gas flowing in and out of the alveoli is directly proportional to the difference in pressure or pressure gradient between the external atmosphere and the alveoli.
b. Pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance.
Which of the following is NOT part of the respiratory membrane of the
a. alveolar epithelium b. capillary endothelium c. single layer of smooth muscle cells d. basement membrane
c. single layer of smooth muscle cells
Which of the following is true regarding normal quiet expiration of
a. It is a passive process that depends on the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration. b. It depends on the complete lack of surface tension on the alveolar wall. c. It is driven by increased blood CO2 levels. d. It requires contraction of abdominal wall muscles.
a. It is a passive process that depends on the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration.
Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract or relax during
forced expiration, for example blowing up a balloon?
a. diaphragm would contract, external intercostals would relax b. internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract c. external intercostals would contract and diaphragm would relax d. diaphragm would contract, internal intercostals would relax
b. internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
Which statement about CO2 is FALSE?
a. Its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation. b. Its accumulation in the blood is associated with a decrease in pH. c. More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs. d. CO2 concentrations are greater in venous blood than arterial blood.
c. More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.
Which structure is lined with simple squamous epithelium? a. trachea b. nasopharynx c. alveolus d. oropharynx