How many strong acids are there?
How many strong bases are there?
How do you know it is a strong base?
- Group 1A metal hydroxides
- Heavy Group 2A metal hydroxides
- Acid is any substance that ionizes to produce H+ in an aqueous solution
- Base is any substance that ionizes to produce OH- in aqueous solution
- Acid is a proton donor
- Base is a proton acceptor
Definition of Oxidation
Occurs when a species loses electron(s)
Definition of Reduction
Occurs when a species gains electron(s)
Formula for Molarity
# mol. solute/ 1 L solution
What is the formula used to calculate the concentration or volume of a diluted solution?
Remember: THIS IS ONLY FOR DILUTIONS
When pH= 7.00 it is a what solution?
When pH<7.00 it is a what solution?
When pH>7.00 it is a what solution?
What does a Serial Dilution give you?
It gives you progressively lower concentrations.
All physical and chemical changes are associated with.......
Change in Energy
Definition of a System
Specific sample of matter (chemical reaction)
Definition of Surroundings
Everything which is not a system
Definition of Heat
Transfer of thermal energy from one body to another at different temperatures (AKA Heat Flow, energy absorbed or released)
Definition of Thermochemistry
Study of heat associated with chemical reactions
2 General Types of Processes
- Processes that release heat into the surroundings called Exothermic Processes
- Processes that absorb heat from the surrounding called Endothermic Processes.
Units of Energy
- SI unit is Joule (J)
- Older unit is Calorie (cal)
1 cal = ? J
1 Cal= ? J
1 Cal = ? kJ
The overall study of Heat and Interconversion of Energy is called what?
3 Types of Systems
- Open system
- Closed system
- Isolated system
What can an open system do?
It can exchange matter and energy with surroundings
What can a closed system do?
It can exchange energy but not matter with surroundings
What can an isolated system do?
It can exchange neither matter nor energy with the surroundings
First Law of Thermodynamics
- Energy can be converted from one form to another but it can not be created nor destroyed
- Based on Conservation of Energy
- Total energy content of the universe is a constant
U of a system has 2 components what are they
- Kinetic Energy
- Potential Energy
What is Kinetic Energy?
Energy that results in motion
What is Potential Energy?
Attractive and repulsive forces within the system
Definition of Energy
Ability to do work or transfer heat
- Heat added to the system; work done on the system (q>0 w>0)
- Heat released by the system; work done by the system (q<0 w<0)
What are the 2 ways a reaction can be performed?
- Constant volume
- Constant pressure
At constant pressure, the system can do work on surroundings. What is this called?
It is called PV work (Pressure-Volume)
At constant pressure what can change?
Volume can change
- So work w= -P
For constant volume what can not be done?
No work can be done, so any change can only be expressed as heat
If you are dealing with PV work, what is the unit conversion for it too Joules?
1 L atm = 101.3 J
Heat at constant pressure
3 Rules for Thermochemical Equations
- States matter, can't omit
- If we multiply coefficients by a factor, must also multiply the thermochemical term by the same factor.
- If you reverse a reaction,
Calorimetry measures what?
Measures heat changes in physical and chemical processes.
Two Types Calorimetry
- Constant Volume (increase in pressure)
- Constant Pressure (increase in volume)
What is Specific Heat? What is its symbol?
- It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1 ℃
- Symbol: s
What is Heat Capacity? What is its symbol?
- It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of an object by 1 ℃
- Symbol: C
Constant Pressure Calorimetry
- If the temperature of the surroundings go up it absorbed heat from the system (Exothermic)
- qsystem= -qsurrounding qp=
Constant Volume Calorimetry
Standard Enthalpy of Formation of any element is?
Define Bond Enthalpies
Amount of enthalpy required to break one mole of bonds ( of a particular sort) homolytically in the gas phase.
Characteristics of Gases
- Indistinct shape and volume
- Gases are compressible
- Gas gave very low densities
- Gases always form homogeneous mixtures in all proportions
4 Assumptions using Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT)
- Gases are made of tiny particles with relatively large separations
- Particles are in constant random motion
- No attractive forces between particles
- The average kinetic energy of a gas, Ek , is proportional to absolute temperature