Exam 4

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Chemistry: Atoms First
Chapters 9-11
updated 4 weeks ago by Sheyla_Villa
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1

How many strong acids are there?

7

2

HNO3 (aq)

Nitric Acid

3

HCl (aq)

Hydrochloric Acid

4

HBr (aq)

Hydrobromic Acid

5

HI (aq)

Hydroiodic Acid

6

H2SO4 (aq)

Sulfuric Acid

7

HClO3 (aq)

Chloric Acid

8

HClO4 (aq)

Perchloric Acid

9

How many strong bases are there?

8

10

How do you know it is a strong base?

  • Group 1A metal hydroxides
  • Heavy Group 2A metal hydroxides
11

Arrhenius Theory

  • Acid is any substance that ionizes to produce H+ in an aqueous solution
  • Base is any substance that ionizes to produce OH- in aqueous solution
12

Bronsted-Lowry Theory

  • Acid is a proton donor
  • Base is a proton acceptor
13

Definition of Oxidation

Occurs when a species loses electron(s)

14

Definition of Reduction

Occurs when a species gains electron(s)

15

Formula for Molarity

# mol. solute/ 1 L solution

16

What is the formula used to calculate the concentration or volume of a diluted solution?

M1V1=M2V2

Remember: THIS IS ONLY FOR DILUTIONS

17

When pH= 7.00 it is a what solution?

Neutral Solution

18

When pH<7.00 it is a what solution?

Acidic Solution

19

When pH>7.00 it is a what solution?

Basic Solution

20

What does a Serial Dilution give you?

It gives you progressively lower concentrations.

21

All physical and chemical changes are associated with.......

Change in Energy

22

Definition of a System

Specific sample of matter (chemical reaction)

23

Definition of Surroundings

Everything which is not a system

24

Definition of Heat

Transfer of thermal energy from one body to another at different temperatures (AKA Heat Flow, energy absorbed or released)

25

Definition of Thermochemistry

Study of heat associated with chemical reactions

26

2 General Types of Processes

  1. Processes that release heat into the surroundings called Exothermic Processes
  2. Processes that absorb heat from the surrounding called Endothermic Processes.
27

Units of Energy

  • SI unit is Joule (J)
  • Older unit is Calorie (cal)
28

1 cal = ? J

4.184 J

29

1 Cal= ? J

4184 J

30

1 Cal = ? kJ

4.184 J

31

The overall study of Heat and Interconversion of Energy is called what?

Thermodynamics

32

3 Types of Systems

  1. Open system
  2. Closed system
  3. Isolated system
33

What can an open system do?

It can exchange matter and energy with surroundings

34

What can a closed system do?

It can exchange energy but not matter with surroundings

35

What can an isolated system do?

It can exchange neither matter nor energy with the surroundings

36

First Law of Thermodynamics

  • Energy can be converted from one form to another but it can not be created nor destroyed
  • Based on Conservation of Energy
  • Total energy content of the universe is a constant
37

U of a system has 2 components what are they

  1. Kinetic Energy
  2. Potential Energy
38

What is Kinetic Energy?

Energy that results in motion

39

What is Potential Energy?

Attractive and repulsive forces within the system

40

Definition of Energy

Ability to do work or transfer heat

41

Sign convention

  • Heat added to the system; work done on the system (q>0 w>0)
  • Heat released by the system; work done by the system (q<0 w<0)
42

What are the 2 ways a reaction can be performed?

  1. Constant volume
  2. Constant pressure
43

At constant pressure, the system can do work on surroundings. What is this called?

It is called PV work (Pressure-Volume)

44

At constant pressure what can change?

Volume can change

  • So work w= -P
45

For constant volume what can not be done?

No work can be done, so any change can only be expressed as heat

46

If you are dealing with PV work, what is the unit conversion for it too Joules?

1 L atm = 101.3 J

47

q p=

Heat at constant pressure

48

3 Rules for Thermochemical Equations

  1. States matter, can't omit
  2. If we multiply coefficients by a factor, must also multiply the thermochemical term by the same factor.
  3. If you reverse a reaction,
49

Calorimetry measures what?

Measures heat changes in physical and chemical processes.

50

Two Types Calorimetry

  1. Constant Volume (increase in pressure)
  2. Constant Pressure (increase in volume)
51

What is Specific Heat? What is its symbol?

  • It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1 ℃
  • Symbol: s
52

What is Heat Capacity? What is its symbol?

  • It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of an object by 1 ℃
  • Symbol: C
53

Constant Pressure Calorimetry

  • If the temperature of the surroundings go up it absorbed heat from the system (Exothermic)
  • qsystem= -qsurrounding qp=
54

Constant Volume Calorimetry

  • Gives
55

Standard Enthalpy of Formation of any element is?

Zero

56

Define Bond Enthalpies

Amount of enthalpy required to break one mole of bonds ( of a particular sort) homolytically in the gas phase.

57

Characteristics of Gases

  1. Indistinct shape and volume
  2. Gases are compressible
  3. Gas gave very low densities
  4. Gases always form homogeneous mixtures in all proportions
58

4 Assumptions using Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT)

  1. Gases are made of tiny particles with relatively large separations
  2. Particles are in constant random motion
  3. No attractive forces between particles
  4. The average kinetic energy of a gas, Ek , is proportional to absolute temperature