Ch. 20 A & P

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1

Anabolism

Metabolic building of simple compounds into more complex substances needed by the body.

2

Catabolism

Metabolic breakdown of substances into simpler substances; includes the digestion of food and the oxidation of nutrient molecules for energy.

3

Fever

Abnormally high body temperature.

4

Glucose

Simple sugar; main energy source for the cells; dextrose.

5

Glycogen

Compound built from glucose molecules that is stored for energy in our liver and muscles.

6

Hypothalamus

Region of the brain that controls the pituitary and maintains homeostasis.

7

Hypothermia

Abnormally low body temp.

8

Kilocalorie

A measure of the energy content of food; technically, the amount of heat needed to raise 1kg of water 1* C.

9

Malnutrition

State resulting from lack of food, lack of an essential component of the diet, or faulty use of food in the diet.

10

Metabolic rate

Rate at which energy is released from nutrients in the cells.

11

Mineral

Inorganic substance; in the diet, an element needed in small amounts for health.

12

Oxidation

Chemical breakdown of nutrients for energy.

13

Pyrogen

Substance that produces fever.

14

Vitamin

Organic compound needed in small amounts for health.

15

The building phase of metabolism is called____________________.

a) mitosis

b) lysis

c) anabolism

d) catabolism

ANS: C

16

The sugar that is the main source of energy for the cells is_____.

a) sucrose

b) cysteine

c) fructose

d) glucose

ANS: D

17

The cell organelles that generate energy in the form of ATP are the______________.

a) mitochondria

b) Golgi apparatus

c) lysosomes

d) ribosomes

ANS: A

18

The building blocks of proteins are ______________.

a) amino acids

b) lipids

c) fats

d) enzymes

ANS: A

19

The category of nutrients that exist in saturated and unsaturated forms is __________________.

a) fats

b) proteins

c) sugars

d) grains

ANS: A

20

The area of the brain that regulates temperature is the _____________.

a) pineal gland

b) cerebral cortex

c) medulla oblongata

d) hypothalamus

ANS: D

21

The main energy source for the body is ___________________.

a) vitamins

b) protein

c) glucose

d) oxygen

ANS: C

22

During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into what chemical?

a) glycogen

b) pyruvic acid

c) ATP

d) lactic acid

ANS: B

During glycosis, glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid.

23

The amount of energy needed to maintain the body while at rest is called the _____________________.

a) basal metabolism

b) stasis reserve

c) glycemic index

d) metabolic rate

ANS: A

24

Sales of dark chocolate and red wine increased dramatically after it was discovered that they both contain high levels of antioxidents. Why are these substances (the antioxidents, not the chocolates and wine!) so important to the body?

a) Because they aid the liver in digesting fats.

b) Because they contain helpful free radicals.

c) Because they minimize the harmful effects of free radicals (ROS) on the cells.

d) Because they increase the metabolic rate.

ANS: C

25

A healthy diet should have no more than _______ of your calories from fats.

a) 10%

b) 4%

c) 55%

d) 30%

ANS: D

26

The end products of complete glucose catabolism are ______________.

a) carbon dioxide and water

b) pyruvic acid and lactic acid

c) free readicals carbonic anhydrase

d) glycogen and fatty acid

ANS: A

27

When cells are lacking oxygen, pyruvic acid produced by glycolysis is converted to _________________________-.

a) bicarbonate ion

b) lactic acid

c) carbonic acid

d) leucine

ANS: B

In the absence of adequate oxygen, pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid.

28

The building phase of metabolism is called _________________.

a) cellular respiration

b) glycosis

c) anabolism

d) catabolism

ANS: B

29

The aerobic phase of glucose metabolism occurs in the ______________.

a) nucleus

b) cytoplasm

c) vesicles

d) mitochondria

ANS: D

30

In the aerobic phase of catabolism, approximately ho w many molecules of ATP are formed per glucose molecule?

a) 100

b) 10

c) 30

d) 2

ANS: C

31

Essential amino acids are those that can be synthesized by internal metabolic reactions. T or F

False

Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body and must be gained from the diet. Nonessential amino acids are those that can by synthesized by internal metabolic reactions.

32

Good sources of fiber include apple juice, mashed potatoes, spaghetti, white rice, and potato chips. T or F

False

33

People who consume vegetarian diets can get their daily requirement of amino acids just by combining grains and legumes. T or F.

True

34

The 2011 USDA dietary guidelines, with the graphic MyPlate, does not include the dairy category. T or F

False

35

An alternate name for Vitamin C is ascorbid acid. T or F.

True

36

The most important organ in the regulation of body heat is the ________________________.

a) anterior pituitary gland

b) hypothalamus

c) cerebellum

d) adrenal gland

ANS: B

37

A substance that produces fever is a(n) _____________________.

a) antipyretic

b) pyrogen

c) NSAID

d) emetic

ANS: B

38

Muscle spasms in the arms, legs, and stomach on a hot day are common symptoms of _______________________.

a) heat exhaustion

b) fever

c) heat cramps

d) heat stroke

ANS: C

39

U.S. runners training under the summer sun for October marathons must guard against __________________.

a) fever

b) heat cramps

c) heat exhaustion

d) heat stroke

ANS: C

40

Occasionally, a strong, young high school football player, doing practice runs in the late August sun, collapses on the practice field and requires immediate medical attention to prevent serious, even fatal, complications. He has suffered from:

a) anorexia

b) hypothermia

c) heat cramps

d) heat stroke

ANS: D

41

Most body heat loss takes place through __________________.

a) the skin

b) muscle activity

c) urination and defecation

d) respiration

ANS: A

42

Body heat can be lost through conduction, radiation, _____________ and evaporation.

a) convection

b) circumduction

c) denaturation

d) shivering

ANS: A

43

Lauren is suffering from an intense fever associated with a nasty bout of influenza. She wakes up in the middle of the night soaked in sweat. She has just passed through the stage of fever called _____.

a) lysis

b) crisis

c) sepsis

d) chills

ANS: B

44

Responses to excessive cold include shivering and __________________.

a) radiation

b) hyperthermia

c) fever

d) vasoconstriction

ANS: D

45

The _________________ system plays a key role in the distribution of body heat.

a) respiratory

b) urinary

c) digestive

d) cardiovascular

ANS: D