Ch. 20 A & P
Metabolic building of simple compounds into more complex substances needed by the body.
Metabolic breakdown of substances into simpler substances; includes the digestion of food and the oxidation of nutrient molecules for energy.
Abnormally high body temperature.
Simple sugar; main energy source for the cells; dextrose.
Compound built from glucose molecules that is stored for energy in our liver and muscles.
Region of the brain that controls the pituitary and maintains homeostasis.
Abnormally low body temp.
A measure of the energy content of food; technically, the amount of heat needed to raise 1kg of water 1* C.
State resulting from lack of food, lack of an essential component of the diet, or faulty use of food in the diet.
Rate at which energy is released from nutrients in the cells.
Inorganic substance; in the diet, an element needed in small amounts for health.
Chemical breakdown of nutrients for energy.
Substance that produces fever.
Organic compound needed in small amounts for health.
The building phase of metabolism is called____________________.
The sugar that is the main source of energy for the cells is_____.
The cell organelles that generate energy in the form of ATP are the______________.
b) Golgi apparatus
The building blocks of proteins are ______________.
a) amino acids
The category of nutrients that exist in saturated and unsaturated forms is __________________.
The area of the brain that regulates temperature is the _____________.
a) pineal gland
b) cerebral cortex
c) medulla oblongata
The main energy source for the body is ___________________.
During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into what chemical?
b) pyruvic acid
d) lactic acid
During glycosis, glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid.
The amount of energy needed to maintain the body while at rest is called the _____________________.
a) basal metabolism
b) stasis reserve
c) glycemic index
d) metabolic rate
Sales of dark chocolate and red wine increased dramatically after it was discovered that they both contain high levels of antioxidents. Why are these substances (the antioxidents, not the chocolates and wine!) so important to the body?
a) Because they aid the liver in digesting fats.
b) Because they contain helpful free radicals.
c) Because they minimize the harmful effects of free radicals (ROS) on the cells.
d) Because they increase the metabolic rate.
A healthy diet should have no more than _______ of your calories from fats.
The end products of complete glucose catabolism are ______________.
a) carbon dioxide and water
b) pyruvic acid and lactic acid
c) free readicals carbonic anhydrase
d) glycogen and fatty acid
When cells are lacking oxygen, pyruvic acid produced by glycolysis is converted to _________________________-.
a) bicarbonate ion
b) lactic acid
c) carbonic acid
In the absence of adequate oxygen, pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid.
The building phase of metabolism is called _________________.
a) cellular respiration
The aerobic phase of glucose metabolism occurs in the ______________.
In the aerobic phase of catabolism, approximately ho w many molecules of ATP are formed per glucose molecule?
Essential amino acids are those that can be synthesized by internal metabolic reactions. T or F
Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body and must be gained from the diet. Nonessential amino acids are those that can by synthesized by internal metabolic reactions.
Good sources of fiber include apple juice, mashed potatoes, spaghetti, white rice, and potato chips. T or F
People who consume vegetarian diets can get their daily requirement of amino acids just by combining grains and legumes. T or F.
The 2011 USDA dietary guidelines, with the graphic MyPlate, does not include the dairy category. T or F
An alternate name for Vitamin C is ascorbid acid. T or F.
The most important organ in the regulation of body heat is the ________________________.
a) anterior pituitary gland
d) adrenal gland
A substance that produces fever is a(n) _____________________.
Muscle spasms in the arms, legs, and stomach on a hot day are common symptoms of _______________________.
a) heat exhaustion
c) heat cramps
d) heat stroke
U.S. runners training under the summer sun for October marathons must guard against __________________.
b) heat cramps
c) heat exhaustion
d) heat stroke
Occasionally, a strong, young high school football player, doing practice runs in the late August sun, collapses on the practice field and requires immediate medical attention to prevent serious, even fatal, complications. He has suffered from:
c) heat cramps
d) heat stroke
Most body heat loss takes place through __________________.
a) the skin
b) muscle activity
c) urination and defecation
Body heat can be lost through conduction, radiation, _____________ and evaporation.
Lauren is suffering from an intense fever associated with a nasty bout of influenza. She wakes up in the middle of the night soaked in sweat. She has just passed through the stage of fever called _____.
Responses to excessive cold include shivering and __________________.
The _________________ system plays a key role in the distribution of body heat.