Drugs

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1

(Drug)

  • (Class)
  • (Mechanism of Action)
  • (Effects on Dental Treatment)
2

Acyclovir

  • Antiviral Agent
  • Converted to acyclovir triphosphate, which competes with deoxyguanosine triphosphate for viral DNA polymerase.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
3

Allopurinol

  • Antigout Agent
  • Inhibits xanthine oxidase, the enzyme that converts hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
4

Amoxicillin

  • Antibiotic, Penicillin
  • Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) (bactericidal).
  • Oral candidiasis
5

Aspirin

  • Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID)
  • Irreversibly inhibits COX-1 and 2 via acetylation, resulting in decreased formation of prostaglandin precursors.
  • Bleeding
6

Azithromycin

  • Antibiotic, Macrolide
  • Binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit to inhibit RNA-dependent protein synthesis (bacteriostatic).
  • Mucositis, oral candidiasis, tongue discoloration
7

Bismuth Subsalicylate

  • Antidiarrheal
  • The salicylate moiety provides antisecretory effect and the bismuth exhibits an antimicrobial effect.
  • Black tongue (reacts with trace sulfur)
8

Carvedilol

  • β-Blocker with α-Blocking Activity
  • Nonselective β and α adrenergic blocking activity; reduces cardaic output and vascular resistance.
  • Orthostatic hypotension, periodontitis, xerostomia, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome
9

Cefazolin

  • Antibiotic, Cephalosporin (First Generation)
  • Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) (bactericidal).
  • Oral candidiasis
10

Cimetidine

  • Histamine H2 Antagonist
  • Competitive inhibition of histamine at H2 receptors of the gastric parietal cells resulting in reduced gastric acid secretion.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
11

Clarithromycin

  • Antibiotic, Macrolide
  • Binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit to inhibit RNA-dependent protein synthesis (bacteriostatic).
  • Abnormal taste
12

Clotrimazole

  • Antifungal Agent, Imidazole Derivative
  • Binds to phospholipids in the fungal cell membrane altering cell wall permeability.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
13

Cytarabine

  • Antineoplastic Agent, Antimetabolite
  • Pyrimidine analog that inhibits DNA polymerase resulting in decreased DNA synthesis and repair.
  • Mucositis
14

Didanosine

  • Antiretroviral, Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, Nucleoside (NRTI)
  • Adenosine analog which interferes with the HIV viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase.
  • Xerostomia
15

Efavirenz

  • Antiretroviral, Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, Non-nucleoside (NNRTI)
  • Directly inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, blocking HIV-1 replication.
  • Abnormal taste
16

Emtricitabine

  • Antiretroviral, Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, Nucleoside (NRTI)
  • Cytosine analog which interferes with the HIV viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
17

Enalapril

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor
  • Competitive inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE); prevents conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor.
  • Abnormal taste, orthostatic hypotension
18

Esomeprazole

  • Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI)
  • Suppresses gastric acid secretion by inhibition of the H+/K+-ATPase in the gastric parietal cell.
  • Xerostomia
19

Ethambutol

  • Antitubercular Agent
  • Inhibits arabinosyl transferase resulting in impaired mycobacterial cell wall synthesis.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
20

Fentanyl

  • Analgesic, Opioid
  • Binds with stereospecific receptors at many sites within the CNS, increases pain threshold, alters pain reception, inhibits ascending pain pathways.
  • Xerostomia, orthostatic hypotension, taste alteration, oral ulcers, gingivitis, glossitis, periodontal abscess, stomatitis, tongue disease, sinusitis dental caries, gingival hemorrhage, gingival recession, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, swollen tongue, tooth loss, voice disorders
21

Fluconazole

  • Antifungal Agent, Azole Derivative
  • Interferes with fungal cytochrome P450 activity (lanosterol 14-α-demethylase), decreasing ergosterol synthesis and inhibiting cell membrane formation.
  • Abnormal taste
22

Foscarnet

  • Antiviral Agent
  • Pyrophosphate analogue which acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor of many viral RNA and DNA polymerases as well as HIV reverse transcriptase.
  • X erostomia, taste perversion, ulcerative stomatitis
23

Ganciclovir

  • Antiviral Agent
  • Phosphorylated to a substrate which competitively inhibits the binding of deoxyguanosine triphosphate to DNA polymerase, inhibiting viral DNA synthesis.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
24

Hydrocodone-Acetaminophen

  • Analgesic Combination (Opioid)
  • Hydrocodone binds to opiate receptors in the CNS, altering the perception of and response to pain; suppresses cough in medullary center.
  • APAP is thought to activate descending serotonergic inhibitory pathways in the CNS.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
25

Hydrocortisone

  • Corticosteroid, Systemic or Topical
  • Decreases inflammation by suppression of migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and reversal of increased capillary permeability.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
26

Hydroxyurea

  • Antineoplastic Agent, Miscellaneous
  • Antimetabolite that selectively inhibits ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase, preventing the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, halting the cell cycle at the G1/S phase; in sickle cell anemia, hydroxyurea increases red blood cell (RBC) HbF levels.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
27

Hyoscyamine

  • Anticholinergic Agent
  • Blocks acetylcholine at parasympathetic sites in smooth muscle, secretory glands, and the CNS.
  • Xerostomia
28

Ibuprofen

  • Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID)
  • Reversibly inhibits COX-1 and 2, resulting in decreased formation of prostaglandin precursors.
  • Glossitis, abnormal coagulation
29

Idarubicin

  • Antineoplastic Agent, Anthracycline
  • Inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis by intercalation between DNA base pairs and by steric obstruction.
  • Stomatitis
30

Infliximab

  • Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Blocking Agent
  • A monoclonal antibody that binds to human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), thereby interfering with endogenous TNFα activity.
  • Immunosuppression
31

Isoniazid

  • Antitubercular Agent
  • Inhibits the synthesis of mycoloic acids, an essential component of the bacterial cell wall.
  • Xerostomia
32

Loperamide-Simethicone

  • Antidiarrheal; Antiflatulent
  • Loperamide acts on the opioid receptor to inhibit peristalsis and prolong intestinal transit time.
  • Simethicone decreases the surface tension of gas bubbles, reducing gas pockets in the GI system.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
33

Mesalamine

  • 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Derivative
  • 5-ASA is thought to modulate local chemical mediators of the inflammatory response.
  • Pharyngitis
34

Metronidazole

  • Antibiotic, Miscellaneous; Antiprotozoal
  • Causes loss of helical DNA structure and strand breakage (bactericidal).
  • Metallic taste, xerostomia, dizziness, pharyngitis, sinusitis, bacterial infection, candidiasis, hairy tongue, dysgeusia, glossitis, stomatitis, dark urine
35

Mometasone

  • Corticosteroid, Nasal
  • Depresses the formation, release, and activity of endogenous chemical mediators of inflammation.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
36

Morphine

  • Analgesic, Opioid
  • Binds to opioid receptors in the CNS, causing inhibition of ascending pain pathways.
  • Xerostomia, GERD, dysphagia, dry mouth, dysgeusia, constipation
37

Naproxen

  • Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID)
  • Reversibly inhibits COX-1 and 2, resulting in decreased formation of prostaglandin precursors.
  • Stomatitis, glossitis
38

Nitazoxanide

  • Antibiotic, Miscellaneous; Antiprotozoal
  • Metabolized to tizoxanide, which may interfere with the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) enzyme-dependent electron transfer reaction of anaerobic metabolism.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
39

Nystatin

  • Antifungal Agent
  • Binds to sterols in fungal cell membrane, changing the cell wall permeability.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
40

Omeprazole

  • Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI)
  • Suppresses gastric acid secretion by inhibiting the parietal cell H+/K+ ATP pump.
  • Taste perversion, dry mouth, esophageal candidiasis, stomatitis, and mucosal atrophy
41

Penicillin

  • Antibiotic, Penicillin
  • Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) (bactericidal).
  • Oral candidiasis
42

Prednisone

  • Corticosteroid, Systemic
  • Decreases inflammation by suppression of migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and reversal of increased capillary permeability.
  • Increased risk of infection, delayed wound healing
43

Psyllium

  • Antidiarrheal; Laxative, Bulk-Producing
  • A soluble fiber that absorbs water in the intestine to promotes peristalsis and reduce transit time.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
44

Ranitidine

  • Histamine H2 Antagonist
  • Competitive inhibition of histamine at H2-receptors of the gastric parietal cells, which inhibits gastric acid secretion.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
45

Rifabutin

  • Antitubercular Agent
  • Inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase at the beta subunit which prevents chain initiation.
  • Saliva discoloration (reddish orange)
46

Ritonavir

  • Antiretroviral, Protease Inhibitor
  • Binds to the site of HIV-1 protease activity and inhibits cleavage of viral Gag-Pol polyprotein precursors into functional proteins required for infectious HIV.
  • Xerostomia, taste perversion
47

Sevoflurane

  • General Anesthetic, Inhalation
  • Alters activity of neuronal ion channels particularly the fast synaptic neurotransmitter receptors.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
48

Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim

  • Antibiotic, Sulfonamide Derivative
  • SMZ competes with para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), interfering with dihydrofolic acid formation.
  • TMP inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, preventing reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolic acid.
  • Stomatitis
49

Sulfasalazine

  • 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Derivative
  • 5-ASA is thought to modulate local chemical mediators of the inflammatory response.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
50

Tenofovir

  • Antiretroviral, Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, Nucleotide (NRTI)
  • Adenosine analog which interferes with the HIV viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
51

Timolol

  • β-Blocker, Nonselective
  • Blocks β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors; reduces blood pressure by decreasing sympathetic outflow, reduces intraocular pressure by reducing aqueous humor production.
  • Xerostomia, may enhance the pressor response to epinephrine resulting in hypertension
52

Tinidazole

  • Antiprotozoal, Nitroimidazole
  • Causes cytotoxicity by damaging DNA and preventing further DNA synthesis.
  • Xerostomia, metallic/bitter taste, oral candidiasis, tongue discoloration, stomatitis, furry tongue
53

Vecuronium

  • Neuromuscular Blocker Agent, Nondepolarizing
  • Blocks acetylcholine from binding to receptors on motor endplate inhibiting depolarization.
  • No significant effects or complications reported.
54

Zidovudine

  • Antiretroviral, Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, Nucleoside (NRTI)
  • Thymidine analog which interferes with the HIV viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase.
  • Taste perversion, oral mucosa pigmentation, dysphagia, mouth ulcer