Anatomy & Physiology Exam 2

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1

Define Tissue:

A group of cells similar in structure. The cells within a tissue share a common embryonic origin.

2

Germ Layers:

card image
3

Epithelial Tissue

  • A continuous layer lining body surface and cavities, with tight junctions and desmosomes
4

Cells have ______.

  • Polarity
5

Epithelial Tissue is supported by _________

  • Basement Membrane
6

Basal lamina is :

  • Glycoproteins secreted by epithelial cells
7

Reticular Lamina is :

  • Collagen fibers secreted by underlying tissues
8

Avascular but innervated has :

  • No blood vessels but are supplied by nerve fibers
9

Simple squamous epithelium :

  • One layers of cells with flattened nuclei.
  • Function: For easy diffusion
  • Location: Lining of cardiovascular system and lymphatic vessel ( Endothelium), air sacs of lungs, serosa , lining of ventral body cavity ( mesothelium)
10

Simple cuboidal :

  • One layer of cells with spherical nuclei
  • Function: absorption, secretion
  • Location: Kidney tubule, ovary surface
11

Simple Columnar :

  • one layer of cells with elongated nuclei
  • Function: Absorption, Secretion
  • May have goblets and cilia
  • Location: Stomach, intestine
12

Pseudostratified :

  • One layer of cells with different height
  • Function: Secretion, Absorption
  • May have goblets and cilia
  • Location: Trachea
13

Stratified Squamous :

  • Apical cells are squamous
  • Function : multiple layers of cells provide protection against abrasion
  • Location: Epidermis of skin, oral cavity lining
14

Transitional epithelium :

  • Apical cells: dome shaped or squamous
  • Basal cells: cuboidal or columnar
  • Function: Cell change shape when stretched, provide flexibility
  • Location: Lining of urinary bladder
15

Endocrine gland :

  • No ducts, release hormones to blood stream, secretions diffuse intro blood vessels.
16

Exocrine gland :

  • Most release secretion to surface or lumen through ducts
  • Merocrine gland: exocytosis, pancreas
  • Holocrine gland: cell rupture, sebaceous gland
  • Apocrine: pinching off, apocrine sweat gland
17

Connective tissues :

  • Ground substance (matrix), fibers, cells
18

Loose fibrous :

  • Areolar: fibroblast, collagen fiber, universal packaging
  • Adipose: fibroblast, adipocyte, store energy, insulation, in skin
  • Reticular: fibroblast, reticular fiber, in lymphoid organs
19

Dense fibrous :

  • Irregular: fibroblast, irregular packed collagen fiber, in skin
  • Regular: fibroblast, parallel collagen fiber, poor blood supply,

in tendon, ligament

  • Elastic: more parallel elastic fibers, in aorta
20

Cartilage

  • Chondrocyte in lacuna, avascular, no nerve fibers, appositional and interstitial growth
  • Hyaline cartilage: most common, in articular surface
  • Elastic cartilage: more elastic fibers, in outer ear
  • Fibrocartilage: parallel collagen fibers, in intervertebral disc
21

Blood :

  • Ground substance : Fluid matrix (plasma)
  • Protein fiber: fibrinogen, forming fibrin during clotting
  • Cells: formed elements (red blood cells,white blood cells, platelets)
22

Most abundant protein in body :

  • collagen
23

Bone (Osseous tissue) :

  • Ground substance : Solid, rigid matrix containing calcium alts (mainly calcium phosphate)
  • Collagen fibers
  • Cells : Osteocytes , located in lacunae
24

Smooth muscle :

  • Spindle, one nucleus, no striation, involuntary
25

Skeletal muscle :

  • Fiber, multinuclei, striation, voluntary
26

Cardiac muscle :

  • Branched, one nucleus, striation, involuntary, intercalated disc, gap junction
27

Neuron

  • Cell body, axon, dendrites
28

Mucosa :

  • Lining internal spaces that have opening to outside
  • Epithelium + Lamina propria (loose connective)
29

Serosa :

  • Lines ventral cavities and organs
  • Simple squamous + areolar
30

Tissue repair :

  • Regeneration: produce original tissue
  • Fibrosis: replace damaged tissue with scar tissue (fibrous connective tissue)
31

Tissue regenerative ability :

card image
32

Define organ and organ system :

  • Organ is a body structure made of two or more tissue types
33

What are the functions of skin?

  • Protections ( against UV, Immune defense by phagocytes, etc) blood reservoir , excretion, thermoregulation, vitamin D
34

Are there blood vessels in the Epidermis?

No.

35

Structure and functions of epidermis

card image
36

What makes thick skin thick?​

Mainly due to very thick stratum corneum​

37

What are the compositions of papillary layer and reticular layer of the dermis? Which layer produces fingerprint patterns? ​

Papillary: areolar; dermal papillae​

Reticular: dense irregular connective​

38

Sweat glands​

Eccrine sweat gland: most numerous (palm, sole, forehead)​

Apocrine sweat gland: axillary/genital areas, active at puberty​

Ceruminous gland: earwax​

Mammary gland: milk​

39

Gland associated with hair follicles​

Apocrine sweat gland and sebaceous glands​

40

Glands responsible for the formation of acne:

sebaceous​

41

Structure of hair shaft

medulla, cortex, cuticle

42

Hair Matrix

Hair Growth

43

Hair Papilla

Connective tissue/blood vessels

44

Arrector Pilli

Goose bump, hair stranding

45

How does skin participate in bone health?​

UV → vitamin D → Ca2+ absorption​

46

1) Cyanois

2)Erythema

3)Pallor

4)Jaundice

5)Bronzing

1) Heart/ Lung Disorder

2) Hypertension, inflammation

3) Anemia, low blood pressure

4) Liver disorder

5) Addison's disease, pitutary tumor

47

What are the rules for recognizing signs of melanoma? ​

A (asymmetry) ​

B (border irregularity) ​

C (color) ​

D (diameter) ​

48

What are the damages for 1st, 2nd, and 3rd-degree burn?

Partial-thickness:​

1st: epidermis​

2nd: epidermis and top dermis​

Full-thickness:​

3rd: epidermis and dermis, usually need skin grafting​

49

Bone markings: function?​

trochanter, process, head, facet, condyle, foramen, meatus fossa​

50

Structure of osteon​

Lamellae, osteocytes, central canal, perforating canals, canaliculi​

51

Contrast the structure of compact and spongy bones.

Compact: osteon, osteocytes in lacunae​

Spongy: trabeculae, red bone marrow, osteocytes in lacunae​

52

Periosteum and endosteum in bone deposit and resorption.​

endosteum and inner layer of periosteum contain osteoblast for bone deposit and osteoclast for bone resorption​

53

Ossification (osteogenesis):

Bone formation​

54

Intramembranous ossification​

Hyaline cartilage as model;​

Long bones​

55

Describe how long bones grow in length and width.​

Length: epiphyseal plate (proliferation and ossification zones), interstitial​

Width: periosteum, endosteum (osteoblasts, osteoclasts), appositional​

56

Describe the process of fracture healing.

Hematoma  Fibrocartilage callus  Bony callus (spongy)  Remodeling (compact)​

57

Bone abnormality​

1)Osteomalacia - Soft bone (inadequate minerals)

2) Osteoporosis - Low bone density ( low bone deposit rate)

3) Avascular Necrosis - Bone death ( Lack of blood supply)

4) Osteogenesis imperfacta - Brittle bone collagen fibers

58

Define axial and appendicular skeleton​

Appendicular skeleton includes all the bones that form the upper and lower limbs. Axial skeleton includes all the bones along the body's long axis.

59

List the cranial bones that sphenoid connects to.

All cranial bones​

60

List the facial bones that maxillae connect to

All facial bones except mandible​

61

List the bones that form the orbit

Frontal, maxilla, lacrimal, zygomatic, sphenoid, ethmoid, palatine​

62

List the bones that form the roof, wall, floor, and septum of the nasal cavity

Roof - Ethmoid

Wall - Ethmoid. palatine, inferior nasal chonchae

Floor - Maxillae ,palatine

Septum - vomer , ethmoid

63

List the bones that contribute to the paranasal sinuses.​

Frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, maxillae

64

Describe the articulation between atlas and occipital bone and atlas and axis

Atlas-occipital condyle: “Yes” motion​

Atlas-axis: “No” motion​

65

Describe the structure of Intervertebral disc.​

Nucleus pulposus, Anulus fibrosus​

66

Abnormal curvatures​

1) Scoliosis - Thoracic Lateral Curvature

2)Kyphosis (Hunchback) - Dorsally Exaggerated Thoracic Curvature

3)Lordosis (Swayback) - Exaggerated lumbar curvature

67

Contrast 1)cervical, 2)thoracic, and 3)lumber vertebrae​

1) Transverse foramen, bifid spinous process

2) Facets for ribs, long, sharp spinous process

3)Lumbar , short , blunt spinous process

68

Define pectoral girdle and list bone markings of scapula ​

scapular and clavicle​

1) Acromion, joint with clavicle

2) Glenoid Cavity, Joint humerus

3) Coracoid Process, attachment for biceps

69

Bone markings of humerus

1) Deltoid tuberosity - attachment for deltoid

2) Radical groove - for radical nerve

3) Olecranon fossa , coroid fossa trochlea -Articulate with ulna

4)Capitulum with articulate with radius

70

Define pelvic girdle​

coxal bone: ilium, ischium, pubis​

71

Define fontanelles​

unossified membrane between cranial bones of fetal skull​

Provide flaxibility: easy for mother to deliver, room for baby’s brain to grow ​