Anatomy of the GI Tract Part 2

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Small intestine, Large intestine, and overview of Nutrition and Metabolism
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1

A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.

bile

2

Anabolism includes reactions in which ________.

larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones

3

Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________.

cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction

4

Defecation reflex is a _________ mediated __________ reflex.

spinal cord, parasympathetic

5

During Redox reactions, _____ as hydrogen acceptors.

coenzymes

6

Fatty acids enter _______ and are transported to the circulation via ______________.

lacteals, lymph

7

Haustral contraction is a slow _______ movement.

segmenting

8

Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in the _____.

mitochondria

9

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?

plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli

10

The anal canal is lined with ______ epithelium , and colon is lined with _____ epithelium.

stratified squamous, simple columnar

11

The most common motion of the small intestine is _______________?

segmentation

12

Voluntary signals stimulate relaxation of the ____________ muscle and defecation occurs.

external anal sphincter

13

What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases its activity, produces motion, or does work?

phosphorylation

14

Which of the following are functions of large intestine?
1. mechanical digestion, 2. chemical digestion, 3. absorption, 4, propulsion

1,2,3, and 4

15

Which of the following categories is not a major nutrient?

vitamins

16

Which of the following is caused by gastroileal reflex?

allow chyme to pass into the large intestine

17

Which of the following is not a structural modification of the small intestine wall to increase surface area?

haustra

18

Which of the following is true for transverse colon?

It is attached to the posterior body wall via mesocolon

19

Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________.

is longer than the small intestine

20

Which of the following occurs during defecation?

relaxation of internal sphincter muscle

21

Which of the following neurotransmitter stimulates GI motility?

acetylcholine

22

Which of the following is a correct statement?

Cellular respiration is a catabolic process.

23

The term metabolism is best defined as ________.

the sum of biochemical reactions involved in building breaking down molecules

24

Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?

synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins

25

Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?

oxidative phosphorylation