RE: Prof. V. Mahimkar- Introduction

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Chapter 11 Intro to the nervous system and nervous tissue
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1

Signal travels through a chain of neurons, each feeding back to previous neurons.

Reverberating circuit

2

A type of circuit in which several input neurons converge on a single output neuron.

Converging circuit

3

Signal stimulates neurons arranged in parallel arrays that eventually converge on a single output cell. Impulses reach output cell at different times, causing a burst of impulses called after-discharged.

Parallel after-discharge circuit

4

A type of neural circuit in which a single input neuron contracts several output neurons.

Diverging circuit

5

What are ciliated CNS neuroglia that play an active role in moving the cerebrospinal fluid called

Ependymal cells

6

The sheath of Schwann is also called the

Neurolemma.

7

Where do you find bipolar neurons

Retina of the eyes, olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity.

8

The period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus is the

Absolute refractory period.

9

The part of a neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called a(n)

Motor/Efferent neuron.

10

Which ion channel opens in response to a change in membrane potential and participates in the generation and conduction of action potentials

Voltage-gated Na+ channels

11

What is the role of acetylcholinesterase

Degrades acetylcholine back into acetic acid and choline.

12

When a stimulus is applied to a neuron cell membrane, the permeability of the membrane is altered and ______ diffuses to the ________ of the cell resulting in depolarization.

Na+ and ICF

13

After depolarization, the neuron cell membrane is repolarized when _______ diffuses to the ______ of the cell.

K+ and EFC

14

The minimum stimulus required to initiate a nerve impulse or action potential is called a(n) __________ stimulus

Threshold

15

Collections of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system are called

Ganglia

16

The substance released at axon terminals to propagate a nervous impulse is called a(n).

Neurotransmitters

17

Oligodendrocytes are similar to

Schwann cells

18

A gap between Schwann cells in the peripheral system is called a(n)

Nodes of Ranvier

19

That part of the nervous system that is voluntary and conducts impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscles is the nervous system

Somatic

20

What function is served by the increased axon diameter at the nodes of Ranvier?

Conduction velocity, conducts nerve impulses faster. (Saltatory conduction)

21

What is the term for the neuroglia cell that is phagocytic?

Microglial cells

22

What is Anterograde

Transport along the axon away from the cell body

23

What is Retrograde?

Transport along the axon toward cell body

24

CNS commands from

Brain and spinal cord

25

what does CNS do

integration and control center, interprets sensory input and dictates motor output

26

PNS two functional divisions

Sensory (afferent) division and Motor (efferent) division

27

Consist of neurons that carry signals from skeletal muscles, bones joints and skin

(PNS Sensory ) somatic sensory division

28

Consist of neurons that transmit signals from viscera organs, like heart, lungs, stomach, intestines, kidneys, and urinary bladder.

(PNS Sensory) visceral sensory division

29

PNS

Cranial and spinal nerves link CNS and rest of body, preforms motor and sensory functions.

30

Neurons that carry out the motor function of the nervous system

PNS motor division

31

PNS consist of neurons that transmit signals to skeletal muscles, in which tissue is under conscious control so this division is sometimes referred to voluntary motor division

PNS somatic motor division

32

PNS consist of neurons that carry signals primarily to thoracic and abdominal viscera. Regulates secretion from certain glands, the contraction of smooth muscle , and the contraction of cardiac muscle in the heart.

PNS The visceral motor division (ANS)

33

Receive input from other neurons which they transmit in the form of electrical impulses towards the cell body

Dendrites

34

Processes that can generate and conduct action potentials

Axon

35

Where do you find multipolar neurons

Most neurons in the CNS, motor neurons in the PNS

36

Where do you find pseudounipolar neurons

Sensory neurons in the PNS associated with touch, pain and vibration sensations.

37

Within PNS cluster of cell bodies

Ganglia

38

Within CNS cluster of cell bodies

Nuclei

39

Within PNS bundles of axons

Nerves

40

Within CNS bundles of axon

Tracts

41

Within CNS, Anchoring neurons and blood vessels in place, regulates the extracellular environment of the brain, assisting the info of the blood brain barrier, and repairing damaged brain tissue.

Astrocytes

42

Within PNS, Anchoring neurons and blood vessels in place, regulates the extracellular environment of the brain, assisting the info of the blood brain barrier, and repairing damaged brain tissue.

Satellite cells

43

In PNS forms myelin cells

Schwann cells

44

In CNS forms myelin cells

oligodendrocytes

45

Neuron conducting impulses toward synapse, sending information.

Presynaptic neuron

46

Neuron transmitting electrical signals away from the synapse, receives the information.

Postsynaptic neuron

47

Largest diameter, All of which are myelinated somatic and motor fibers, fastest speed

Type A fibers

48

Are intermediate in diameter, some myelinated, ANS fibers

Type B fibers

49

Smallest diameter, unmyelinated, Slowest speed ANS fiber

Type C fibers