RE: Prof. V. Mahimkar- Introduction
Signal travels through a chain of neurons, each feeding back to previous neurons.
A type of circuit in which several input neurons converge on a single output neuron.
Signal stimulates neurons arranged in parallel arrays that eventually converge on a single output cell. Impulses reach output cell at different times, causing a burst of impulses called after-discharged.
Parallel after-discharge circuit
A type of neural circuit in which a single input neuron contracts several output neurons.
What are ciliated CNS neuroglia that play an active role in moving the cerebrospinal fluid called
The sheath of Schwann is also called the
Where do you find bipolar neurons
Retina of the eyes, olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity.
The period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus is the
Absolute refractory period.
The part of a neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called a(n)
Which ion channel opens in response to a change in membrane potential and participates in the generation and conduction of action potentials
Voltage-gated Na+ channels
What is the role of acetylcholinesterase
Degrades acetylcholine back into acetic acid and choline.
When a stimulus is applied to a neuron cell membrane, the permeability of the membrane is altered and ______ diffuses to the ________ of the cell resulting in depolarization.
Na+ and ICF
After depolarization, the neuron cell membrane is repolarized when _______ diffuses to the ______ of the cell.
K+ and EFC
The minimum stimulus required to initiate a nerve impulse or action potential is called a(n) __________ stimulus
Collections of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system are called
The substance released at axon terminals to propagate a nervous impulse is called a(n).
Oligodendrocytes are similar to
A gap between Schwann cells in the peripheral system is called a(n)
Nodes of Ranvier
That part of the nervous system that is voluntary and conducts impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscles is the nervous system
What function is served by the increased axon diameter at the nodes of Ranvier?
Conduction velocity, conducts nerve impulses faster. (Saltatory conduction)
What is the term for the neuroglia cell that is phagocytic?
What is Anterograde
Transport along the axon away from the cell body
What is Retrograde?
Transport along the axon toward cell body
CNS commands from
Brain and spinal cord
what does CNS do
integration and control center, interprets sensory input and dictates motor output
PNS two functional divisions
Sensory (afferent) division and Motor (efferent) division
Consist of neurons that carry signals from skeletal muscles, bones joints and skin
(PNS Sensory ) somatic sensory division
Consist of neurons that transmit signals from viscera organs, like heart, lungs, stomach, intestines, kidneys, and urinary bladder.
(PNS Sensory) visceral sensory division
Cranial and spinal nerves link CNS and rest of body, preforms motor and sensory functions.
Neurons that carry out the motor function of the nervous system
PNS motor division
PNS consist of neurons that transmit signals to skeletal muscles, in which tissue is under conscious control so this division is sometimes referred to voluntary motor division
PNS somatic motor division
PNS consist of neurons that carry signals primarily to thoracic and abdominal viscera. Regulates secretion from certain glands, the contraction of smooth muscle , and the contraction of cardiac muscle in the heart.
PNS The visceral motor division (ANS)
Receive input from other neurons which they transmit in the form of electrical impulses towards the cell body
Processes that can generate and conduct action potentials
Where do you find multipolar neurons
Most neurons in the CNS, motor neurons in the PNS
Where do you find pseudounipolar neurons
Sensory neurons in the PNS associated with touch, pain and vibration sensations.
Within PNS cluster of cell bodies
Within CNS cluster of cell bodies
Within PNS bundles of axons
Within CNS bundles of axon
Within CNS, Anchoring neurons and blood vessels in place, regulates the extracellular environment of the brain, assisting the info of the blood brain barrier, and repairing damaged brain tissue.
Within PNS, Anchoring neurons and blood vessels in place, regulates the extracellular environment of the brain, assisting the info of the blood brain barrier, and repairing damaged brain tissue.
In PNS forms myelin cells
In CNS forms myelin cells
Neuron conducting impulses toward synapse, sending information.
Neuron transmitting electrical signals away from the synapse, receives the information.
Largest diameter, All of which are myelinated somatic and motor fibers, fastest speed
Type A fibers
Are intermediate in diameter, some myelinated, ANS fibers
Type B fibers
Smallest diameter, unmyelinated, Slowest speed ANS fiber
Type C fibers