microbiology chapter 1
How did the idea of spontaneous generation come about?
People came to believe that living organisms arise from non-living matter because they would see flies coming out of manure, maggots coming out of dead animals and microorganisms in liquids after a day or two.
State the role microorganisms play in the biological control of pests
Certain microorganisms cause diseases in insects. Microorganisms that kill insects can be effective biological agents because they are specific for the pest and don not persist in the enviroment.
State the role microorganisms play in the recycling of elements.
Carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus are required for all living organisms. Microorganisms convert these elements into forms that are useful for other organisms. Many bacteria decompose material and release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. which plants use. Some bacteria can take nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it into a form that plants and other microorganisms can use.
State the role of microorganisms play in normal microbiota.
Normal microbiota are microorganisms that are found in and on the human body. They do not cause disease and can be beneficial.
State the role of microorganisms play in sewage treatment.
Organic matter in sewage is decomposed by bacteria into carbon dioxide, nitrates, phosphates, sulfate, and other inorganic compounds in a wastewater treatment plant.
State the role microorganisms play in human insulin production.
Recombinant DNA techniques have resulted in insertion of the gene for insulin production into bacteria. These bacteria can produce human insulin inexpensively.
State the role microorganisms play in vaccine production.
Microorganisms can be used as vaccines. Some microbes can be genetically modified to produce components of vaccines.
State the role microorganisms play in biofilms.
Biofilms are aggregated bacteria adhering to each other and to a solid surface.
Studies biodegradation of toxic wastes
biotechnology and microbial ecology
Studies the causative agent of ebola virus disease
Studies the production of human proteins by bacteria
biotechnology, microbial genetics, microbial physiology
Studies the symptoms of AIDS
Studies the production of toxin by E. coli
Studies biodegradation of pollutants
Develops gene therapy for a disease
Studies the fungus Candida albicans
Prokaryote without peptidoglycan cell wall
Cell wall made of cellulose; photosynthetic
Cell wall made of peptidoglycan
Cell wall made of chitin
Unicellular, complex cell structure lacking a cell wall
Not composed of cells
Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty
Proved DNA is the hereditary material
Beadle and Tatum
Showed that genes code for enzymes
Spliced animal DNA to bacterial DNA
Used the first synthetic chemotherapeutic agent
First to observe cells in plant material and name them
Observed that viruses are filterable material
Jacob and Monod
Discovered how SNA controls protein synthesis in a cell
Developed vaccine against smallpox
Proved that microorganisms can cause disease
Proposed a classification system for streptococci based on antigens in their cell walls
Lederberg and Tatum
Discovered that DNA can be transferred from one bacterium to another
First to use disinfectants in surgical procedures
Disproved spontaneous generation
First to characterize a virus
First to observe bacteria
Said living cells arise from preexisting living cells
Used bacteria to produce acetone
is the yeast sold for making bread, wine and beer
What type of microorganism has a peptidoglycan cell wall, has DNA that is not contained in a nucleus and has flagella?