microbiology chapter 1

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Microbiology
Chapter 1
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1

How did the idea of spontaneous generation come about?

People came to believe that living organisms arise from non-living matter because they would see flies coming out of manure, maggots coming out of dead animals and microorganisms in liquids after a day or two.

2

State the role microorganisms play in the biological control of pests

Certain microorganisms cause diseases in insects. Microorganisms that kill insects can be effective biological agents because they are specific for the pest and don not persist in the enviroment.

3

State the role microorganisms play in the recycling of elements.

Carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus are required for all living organisms. Microorganisms convert these elements into forms that are useful for other organisms. Many bacteria decompose material and release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. which plants use. Some bacteria can take nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it into a form that plants and other microorganisms can use.

4

State the role of microorganisms play in normal microbiota.

Normal microbiota are microorganisms that are found in and on the human body. They do not cause disease and can be beneficial.

5

State the role of microorganisms play in sewage treatment.

Organic matter in sewage is decomposed by bacteria into carbon dioxide, nitrates, phosphates, sulfate, and other inorganic compounds in a wastewater treatment plant.

6

State the role microorganisms play in human insulin production.

Recombinant DNA techniques have resulted in insertion of the gene for insulin production into bacteria. These bacteria can produce human insulin inexpensively.

7

State the role microorganisms play in vaccine production.

Microorganisms can be used as vaccines. Some microbes can be genetically modified to produce components of vaccines.

8

State the role microorganisms play in biofilms.

Biofilms are aggregated bacteria adhering to each other and to a solid surface.

9

Studies biodegradation of toxic wastes

biotechnology and microbial ecology

10

Studies the causative agent of ebola virus disease

virology

11

Studies the production of human proteins by bacteria

biotechnology, microbial genetics, microbial physiology

12

Studies the symptoms of AIDS

immunology

13

Studies the production of toxin by E. coli

microbial physiology

14

Studies biodegradation of pollutants

microbial ecology

15

Develops gene therapy for a disease

molecular biology

16

Studies the fungus Candida albicans

mycology

17

Archaea

Prokaryote without peptidoglycan cell wall

18

Algae

Cell wall made of cellulose; photosynthetic

19

Bacteria

Cell wall made of peptidoglycan

20

Fungi

Cell wall made of chitin

21

Helminths

Multicellular animals

22

Protozoa

Unicellular, complex cell structure lacking a cell wall

23

Viruses

Not composed of cells

24

Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty

Proved DNA is the hereditary material

25

Beadle and Tatum

Showed that genes code for enzymes

26

Berg

Spliced animal DNA to bacterial DNA

27

Ehrlich

Used the first synthetic chemotherapeutic agent

28

Fleming

Discovered PCN

29

Hooke

First to observe cells in plant material and name them

30

Iwanowski

Observed that viruses are filterable material

31

Jacob and Monod

Discovered how SNA controls protein synthesis in a cell

32

Jenner

Developed vaccine against smallpox

33

Koch

Proved that microorganisms can cause disease

34

Lancefield

Proposed a classification system for streptococci based on antigens in their cell walls

35

Lederberg and Tatum

Discovered that DNA can be transferred from one bacterium to another

36

Lister

First to use disinfectants in surgical procedures

37

Pasteur

Disproved spontaneous generation

38

Stanley

First to characterize a virus

39

van Leeeuwenhoek

First to observe bacteria

40

Virchow

Said living cells arise from preexisting living cells

41

Weizmann

Used bacteria to produce acetone

42

Bacillus thuringiensis

biological insecticide

43

Saccharomyces

is the yeast sold for making bread, wine and beer

44

What type of microorganism has a peptidoglycan cell wall, has DNA that is not contained in a nucleus and has flagella?

Bacterium