520 Exam I

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1

Antibiotic w/ rapid oral absorbption, broad spectrum, and rapidly bactericidal (ideal antibiotic)

Fluoroquinolone

2

List the toxicity concerns of fluoroquinolones:

  • CNS toxicity (↑ freq and intensity of seizures in dogs)
  • Chondrotoxicity (avoid in small-med breed dogs until 8 mo; large breeds until 18 mo.
  • Occulotoxicity: cats - renal tox=blindness; keep at low dose
3

Antibiotic that is broad spectrum, bacteriostatic, and penetrates intracellular and crosses BBB

Tetracyclines

4

Tox concerns w/ tetracycline

  • Chelate calcium
  • Doxycycline: esophageal stricture in cats
  • May disrupt gut flora
5

Broad spectrum, bacteriostatic, antibiotic that can prolong duration of co-admin. drugs (potent noncompetitive microsomal enzyme inhibitor)

Chloramphenicol

6

Tox concerns w/ Chloramphenicol

  • Bone marrow suppression
  • Aplastic anemia
7

T/F: Chloramphenicol can be used in the US on food animals

False

8

Tox concerns w/ sulfonamides

  • KCS (dry eye)
  • Immune mediated dz in large dogs
  • Interference w/ TH synthesis
9

Tox concerns w/ aminoglycosides

  • Ototoxicity (irreversible)
  • Nephrotoxicity (reversible, but prolonged recovery)
10

Which fungal diseases covered are zoonotic?

  • Sporotrichosis
  • Dermatophytosis (Ringworm)
11

What is used to treat sporotrichosis?

SSKI (Supersaturated potassium iodide)

12

What is used to treat ringworm?

  1. Terbinafine (newest gen.)
  2. Ketoconazole (off-label)
  3. Itraconazole (fewer SE)
  4. Griseofulvin historically, but many SE
  5. Topical therapy and clipping
13

What are Antiparasitics?

Meds indicated for trtmt of parasitic diseases (i.e. nematodes, cestodes, trematodes, protozoa, and external parasites (i.e. fleas, ticks, mites, biting bugs)

14

What is an ectoparasite?

parasite located outside the body (i.e. Fleas, ticks, mites, lice)

15

What is an endoparasite? Name examples of classes of endoparasites

parasite located inside the body

  • nematodes and ascarids
  • cestodes
  • protozoa
16

List examples of nematodes and ascarids

  • Hookworms (ancyclostoma)
  • Roundworms (Toxocara; Toxascaris)
  • Whipworms (trichuris)
  • Heartworms (Dirofilaria)
17

List examples of cestodes

  • Tapeworms
  • Flukes
18

List examples of protozoa

  • Giardia
  • Coccidia
19

Identify the properties of an ideal Antiparasitics agent

  1. Effective against all parasitic stages
  2. Spectrum of activity includes members of different genera
  3. 4-5 fold margin of safety
  4. Rapidly cleared and excreted by host
  5. Does not include resistance in parasite
  6. Economical
20

Cat toxicities to ectoparasiticides

  1. Pyrethrins and Synthetic Pyrethroids; MOA: disrupt Na/K pump
    1. Permethrin
  2. Formamidines --> Farm animal: lice and mites; MOA: Neurotoxin
    1. Amitraz (Mitaban)
    2. Preventic (tick collar)
21

Amitraz brand name

Mitaban

22

Pyrantel (Strongid, Nemex) indication

Antiparasitic: Ascarids and hookworms

23

Fenbendazole (Panacur) indication

Broad spectrum antiparasitic:

  1. GI nematodes (roundworms, hookworms, whipworms)
  2. Lung worm
  3. tapeworms and flukes (some activity)
  4. Giardia (in dogs)
24

Fenbendazole (Panacur) indication

Broad spectrum antiparasitic:

  1. Immature and adult GI nematodes (roundworms, hookworms, whipworms)
  2. Lung worm
  3. Some activity against tapeworms and flukes
  4. Giardia (in dogs)
25

Ivermectin treat indication

Antiparasitic: heartworm prevention

26

Extra-label use exists for ivermectin:

  1. Demodectic and sarcoptic mange (mites)
  2. Ear mites/ticks
27

Examples of anti-protozoal drugs

  • Sulfonamides
  • Metronidazole (flagyl)
  • Fenbendazole (Panacur)
28

Metronidazole brand name

Flagyl

29

Fenbendazole brand name

Panacur

30

Preparation used as a preventative inoculation to confer immunity

Vaccine

31

Core vaccines for dogs:

  • Adeno-, Parvo-, Distemper (DAPPC / DHPPV; MLV)
  • Rabies (Killed)
32

Core vaccines for cats:

  • Herpes1, Calici-, Panleukopenia (FVRCP; MLV)
  • Rabies (Recombinant)
33

Non-core vaccines for dogs:

  • parainfluenza
  • Bordetella
  • influenza
  • leptospira
34

Examples of use for cyclosporine

  1. KCS (dry eye in dogs)
  2. IBD
  3. Perineal fistulas
  4. Atopic dermatitis
  5. Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia
  6. German Shepard pannus
35

Advantages of recombinant vaccine tech

  • Use bact/yeast to create large qtys of a single viral/bact ptn
  • Virtually no chance of host becoming ill from agent
36

Medications which have depressive effect on the immune system

Immunosuppressant

37

Examples of appropriate use of glucocorticoids:

  1. Anti-inflammatory
  2. Immune-suppression
  3. Cancer chemo
  4. CNS disorders
  5. Shock
  6. Blood calcium reduction
38

When should glucocorticoids be avoided?

  1. Systemic fungal infections
  2. Viral infections
  3. GI ulcers
  4. Corneal ulcers
  5. Cushings disease
  6. Diabetes
39

When would prednisolone be a more appropriate choice than prednisone?

For cats bc they are not efficient at converting prednisone

40

List some non-corticosteroid immunosuppressants:

  • Chlorambucil
  • Cyclosporine
  • Asathiprine
41

Main SE of chlorambucil

Bone marrow suppression

42

Examples of use for cyclosporine

  1. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eye in dogs)
  2. IBD
  3. Perineal fistulas
  4. Atopic dermatitis
  5. Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia
  6. German Shepard pannus
43

How to promote best absorption of cyclosporine?

  • Microemulsion provides the best absorption from the GI tract
  • best absorption occurring on an empty stomach
44

Cautions and concerns for azatioprine

  1. Should not be used in pregnant pets / handled by pregnant owners.
  2. not be used in patients with pre-existing liver disease
  3. Experts believe it should not be used in cats bc of bone marrow sensitivity
  4. Wash your hands after handling
45

General principles of zoonotic diseases

may be transmitted directly from animals to people, or indirectly through the environment or vectors such as ticks, mosquitoes, flies, etc.

46

Examples of manifestation of human disease from pet-transmitted zoonoses

  1. Rabies
  2. Ringworm
  3. Cat scratch fever
  4. Scabies
  5. Lyme
  6. Toxoplasmosis
  7. Leptospirosis
  8. Intestinal parasites
  9. giardia
47

Measures for prevention of zoonotic disease

  1. Vaccinations (Rabies and Leptospirosis)
  2. Regular Deworming / Parasite Prevention
  3. Good hygiene
48

MOA for NSAIDs

Cyclooxygenase inhibitor

49

Which enzyme:

  • known to be present in most tissues
  • GI tract: maintains the normal lining of the stomach
  • involved in kidney and platelet function.
  • Constituitive
  • Constantly produced; needed for normal regulatory functions
  • Maintains electrolyte balance in kidneys
  • Cytoprotection to gastric mucosa
  • Platelet function
  • Inhibition undesirable

COX1

50

Which enzyme:

  • primarily present at sites of inflammation.
  • Inducible
  • Induced in face of inflammation
  • Inhibition desirable when goal is to control inflammation

COX2

51

Toxic potential of NSAIDs:

  • Ulcer formation –DOGS
  • Hematopoietic: prolonged bleeding times
  • Reduced renal blood flow
52

Toxic potential of salicylates:

  • Dogs: highly ulcerogenic
  • Cats: only 2 times per week (anti-thrombotic in heart disease)
53

Toxic potential of Para-aminophenol Derivatives

  • NEVER use in cats
  • Not used in domestic animals bc death
54

Propionic Acids Derivatives toxicities:

  • Naproxen: not recommended in companion animals
  • Ibuprofen: VERY toxic – GI ulceration (avoid in cats and dogs)
55

Common opioid SE

Constipation

56

Examples of opioids and their method(s) of delivery

  • Fentanyl: transdermal patch
  • Buprenorphine (Burprenex): Sublingual, injectable à opiate agonist
  • Tramadol: tablets