HAPP Skeletal System

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1

bones that form longitudinal axis of the body

Axial Skeleton

2

bones of the limbs and girdles that attach them to axial skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton

3

Function of Bones: “steel girders” and “reinforced concrete” of the body

support

4

Function of Bones: protect soft body organs

Protection

5

Function of Bones: Skeletal muscles, attached to bones by tendons, use the bones as levers to move the body and its parts

Allow movement

6

Function of Bones: Fat is stored in the internal (marrow) cavities of bones

Storage

7

Function of Bones: Blood cell formation, or hematopoiesis (hem″ah-to-poi-e′sis), occurs within the marrow

Blood Cell Formation

8

Where does blood cell formation occurs

bone marrow

9

blood cell formation

hematopoiesis

10

Fat is stored in what bone

bone marrow

11

dense and looks smooth and homogenous

Compact Bone

12

spiky, open appearance like sponge.

Spongy bone

13

longer than they are wide

long bones

14

thin flattened and usually curved

flat bones

15

are generally cube-shaped and contain mostly spongy bone.

short bones

16

bones that do not fit one of the preceding categories

irregular bones

17

makes up the most of the bone’s length and is composed of _________, covered by a __________ membrane called the _______

makes up the most of the bone’s length and is composed of compact bone, covered by a fibrous connective tissue membrane called the periosteum

18

makes up the most of the bone’s length and is composed of compact bone, covered by a fibrous connective tissue membrane called the periosteum

Diaphysis/Shaft

19

secure the periosteum to the bone

Perforating/Sharpey’s fibers

20

ends of long bones

epiphyses

21

flat plate of hyaline cartilage

Epiphyseal plate

22

which produces blood cells

red marrow

23

which stores adipose

yellow marrow

24

reveal where muscles, tendons, and ligaments attach and where blood vessels and nerves pass

Bone Marking

25

grow out of the bone surface

Projections or processes

26

indentations in the bone.

Depression or cavities

27

mature bone cells found in tiny cavities called lacunae

osteocytes

28

The lacunae are arranged in concentric circles called

lamellae around central/haversian canals

29

tiny canals that radiate outward from central canals to all lacunae

Canaliculi

30

Perforating canals also know as

Volkmann's Canals

31

Bone breaks into three or more
fragments

Comminuted

32

Bone is crushed

Compression

33

Broken bone portion is pressed
inward

Depressed

34

Broken bone ends are forced into
each other

Impacted

35

Ragged break occurs when
excessive twisting forces are
applied to a bone

Spiral

36

Bone breaks incompletely,
much in the way a green
twig breaks

Greenstick

37

Blood vessels are ruptured when the bone breaks

Hematoma forms.

38

Two early events of tissue repair are the growth of new capillaries, internal and external masses of repair tissue

fibrocartilage callus Forms

39

As more osteoblasts
and osteoclasts migrate into the area and multiply, the fibrocartilage callus is gradually replaced
by the

Bony Callus Forms

40

Over the next few
weeks to months, depending on the bone’s
size and site of the break, the bony callus is
remodeled in response to the mechanical
stresses placed on it

Bone Remodeling occurs

41

Axial Skeleton composed of

Skull, Vertebral Column, Thoracic Cage

42

encloses and protects the fragile brain tissue

cranium

43

form a cradle for the eyes that is open to the anterior and allow the facial muscles to show our feelings through smiles or frowns

facial bone

44

Forms forehead

Frontal Bone

45

forms most of the superior and lateral walls of the cranium

Parietal Bone

46

the most posterior bone of the cranium

Occipital Bone

47

lie inferior to the parietal bones

Temporal Bone

48

canal that leads to the eardrum and the middle ear

External Acoustic meatus

49

a sharp, needlelike projection is just inferior to the external auditory meatus.

styloid process

50

is a thin bridge of bone that joins with the cheekbone anteriorly.

Zygomatic process

51

full of air cavities; rough projection posterior and inferior to the external acoustic meatus

Mastoid Process

52

junction of the occipital and temporal bones.

Jugular Foramen

53

bones that form the upper jaw

Maxillary bone

54

lie posterior to the palatine process of the maxilla

Palatine bones

55

Cheekbones

zygomatic bones

56

forms part of the medial walls of the orbit, serves as a passageway for tears

Lacrimal bone

57

rectangular bones forming the bridge of the nose

Nasal bones

58

lower jaw, the largest and strongest bone of the face

Mandible

59

serves as a movable base for the tongue and as an attachment point for neck muscles that raise and lower the larynx when we swallow and speak.

Hyoid Bone

60

In bondy Callus formationg what specific osteocyte two main cells participating in those progresses

Osteoblast and Osteoclast

61

Vertebral Column made up of how many vertebrae

26 vertebrae

62

Vertebral Column also know as

Spin

63

cushion at vertebrae and absorb shocks while allowing spine flexibility

intervertebral discs

64

C1 also known as

Atlas

65

C2 also known as

axis

66

received occipital condyles of skull

Atlas

67

Forms the neck region

Cervical Vertebrae

68

How many vertebrae does cervical have

7 vertebrae

69

How many vertebrae does Thoracic have

12 vertebrae

70

largest vertebrae

Thoracic Vertebrae

71

Vertebrae that are the only vertebrae to articulate with the ribs.

Thoracic Vetebrae

72

How many vertebrae does Lumbar have

5 vertebrae

73

How many vertebrae does Sacral have

5 fusion of vertebrae

74

How many vertebrae does Coccyx have

4 fusion of vertebrae

75

Vertebrae that is Kidney bean like shape

Lumbar vertebrae

76

Sturdiest vertebrae

Lumbar vertebrae

77

Also Know as human Tail Bon

Coccyx Vertebrae

78

Protective cage of slender bones and cartilages around organs of thoracic cavity.

Thoracic Column

79

Sternum also known as

Breastbone

80

Sternum composed of 3 fusion bones:

manubrium, body, xiphoid process

81

Forms the bony thorax

Ribs

82

How many pairs of ribs does Thoracic cage

12

83

how many ribs does true ribs have

7

84

how many ribs does false ribs have

5

85

how many ribs does Floating ribs have

2

86

Shoulder girdle consist of 2 bones:

Clavicle and Scapula

87

Clavicle also known as

Collarbone

88

Sacrum also known as

wings

89

slender and double curve bone

Clavicle

90

Prevents shoulder dislocation

Clavicle

91

Arms

Humerus

92

Forearms

Ulna and Radius

93

Hand

Carpal, Metacarpal, Phalanges

94

Pelvic girdle formed by two__

coxal bone

95

Coxal bone also known as

hip bone

96

Function of Pelvic girdle

Bears weight, protect the reproductive organs

97

hip bone formed by fusion of three bones__

ilium, ischium, Pubis

98

forms most of the hip bones

ilium

99

ischium is also know as

sit down bone

100

anterior part of the coxal bone

pubis

101

received the head of the tight bone

acetabulum

102

thigh

femur

103

leg

fibula and tibia

104

tibia also known as

shin bone

105

foot

tarsal, metatarsal, phalanges

106

They hold the bones together securely but also give the rigid skeleton mobility.

Joints/Articulations

107

immovable joints

Synarthroses

108

slightly moveable joints

Amphiarthroses

109

freely moveable joints

Diarthroses

110

joint inflammation

Arthritis

111

the most common form of arthritis; a chronic degenerative condition that typically affects the aged.

Osteoarthritis

112

a chronic inflammatory disorder, also an autoimmune disease.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

113

is a disease in which uric acid (a normal waste product of nucleic acid metabolism)

Gouty Arthritis

114

bones are united by fibrous tissue, such as those seen in sutures of the brain

Fibrous Joints

115

the bone ends are connected by cartilage

Cartilaginous joints

116

bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid

Synovial joints