Biochem Membrane Transport

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1

What is Gas Gangrene

An environmental disease

2

Which bacteria causes gas gangrene

Clostridium

3

What does Clostridium do

Secretes toxins (lipase) that destroy cells

4

What does Clostridium perfringens hydrolyze

Phosphocholine from within phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin

5

Is Gangrene apoptosis or necrosis

Necrosis cause by loss of blood supply

6

Is Cholera aerobic or anaerobic

Anaerobic

7

What does the cell destruction lead to

Capillary destruction and impaired blood flow

8

What is Cholera

A bacterial disease

9

What does Cholera cause

Water diarrhea that leads to dehydration

10

What toxin does cholera release

ADP-ribosyl

11

What is ADP-ribosyl

G proteins that affect water and salt transport across the intestinal mucosa

12

What determines the A B and O blood groups

Carbohydrate composition of glycolipids

13

Where are glyolipids located

The cell surface

14

Where do viruses, and bacterial toxins bind before penetrating the cell

Glyolipids

15

Which ions are found outside the cell

Na and Cl

16

Which molecules cannot easily pass through the hydrophobic cell membrane

Ions and hydrophilic molecules

17

Which molecules can pass through he hydrophobic membrane (2)

Small and hydrophobic molecules

18

What are the small hydrophobic molecules that can pass through there cell membrane

O2

CO2

N2

Benzene

19

What are the small uncharged polar molecules that can pass through the cell membrane

H2O

Glycerol

Ethanol

20

What are the large uncharged polar molecules that cannot pass through the cell membrane

AA

Glucose

Nucleotides

21

What are the (2) carrieres

Primary active transport

Secondary active transport

22

What are the (4) channels

Ligand Gated

Voltage Gated

Leaky

Stress Activated

23

What do carrier proteins do

Bind molecule and transport it across the membrane

24

What happens to a carrier protein once it binds

Conformational change

25

What type of diffuses are carrier proteins

Active and passive

26

What are channel proteins

Small pores that allow molecules to pass through

27

What type of diffusion is required for channel proteins

Passive diffusion

28

What are ion channels

Channels that only transport ions

29

What do Primary active transport use to move molecules across the membrane

ATP

30

Examples of Primary Active Transports

ATPases

31

What happens when (3) Na bind the ATPase

Phosphorylation and conformational change

32

What does the changed conformation favor

Binding of (2) K ions not he other side

33

What happens when K binds the ATPase

Dephosphorylation

34

What does dephosphorylation lead to

The native state of the enzyme

35

What triggers ion ATPases

A high concentration of the ion on one side of the cell

36

When does dephosphorlyation occur

When a highly unstable phosphorylated enzyme is formed

37

What does the transport of H+ do in an Osteoclast H+ATPase pump

Lowers the pH to allow bone degradation and Ca2+ is released

38

What is solubilized at the low pH of 4

Hydroxyapatite

39

Where is the released Ca2+ used

Nerves and muscles

40

What is the function of the osteoclast

Release acid between the bone membrane and bone surface

41

What does acid dissolve

Ca phosphate matrix

42

What is the P-glycoprotein considered

Multi-Drug Resistance ATPase or MDR-ATPase

43

What does the P-glyoprotein do

Pumps medications out of the cell

44

What are P-glycoprotein related to

Drug resistance

45

What type of gradient does secondary active transport have

Electrical gradient created by the difference in concentration of ions on both sides

46

What are examples on ion gradient driven molecules

AA and sugars

47

What are the means of secondary active transport

Uniport

Symport

Antiport

48

What is Uniport also considered

Facilitates transport

49

GLUT Model

What is the T1 conformation

Where glucose binds to the outside of the cell

50

GLUT Model

What is the t2 conformation

The binding site exposed on the inner surface

51

GLUT Model

Steps of glucose transport (4)

1. Glucose binds

2. Lowers Ea and undergoes conformational change T1 to T2

3. Glucose is released from T2 into the cytoplasm

4. The transported returns to the T1 conformation

52

What triggers GLUT

Insulin due to a high concentration of glucose outside the cell

53

What does the HCO3-Hb Buffer do

Buffers the blood and transports CO2 to the lungs

54

What molecules move in which direction within a HCO3-Hb Buffer

HCO3 moves out

Cl ions move in

55

Which type of transport is the HCO3-Hb buffer

Antiport

56

What does the Erythrocyte Cl-HCO3 exchanger do (2)

Increases CO2 carrying capacity of the blood

Increases HCO3 transport rate across the RBC membrane 1M fold

57

What happens with Na/ H Antiport

The body attempts to reabsorb Na int he lumen through a Na/K pumps

58

What kind of transports do AA undergo

Symport

59

Which other molecules moves along AA when entering the cell

Na ion

60

What drives aa into the lumen of the a. intestines

Low Na concentration

61

Why do AA follow Na into the cell

Na dependent co-transporters

62

AA are then transported out of the cell by what

1 of 6 Facilitated Transporters

63

Which molecules require carrier proteins

Just about all small organic molecules

64

Which molecules do not require transporters

Fat soluble molecules

Small uncharged molecules that travel via simple diffusion

65

What do Channel Proteins transport

Small water soluble molecules

66

What do gas junctions and pores do

Make very large openings