Drug Quiz 2_Pearls

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 12 days ago by brandibyler
3 views
updated 12 days ago by brandibyler
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Bisacodyl

  • BM w/in 15-60 min after rectal admin and 6-12 h of oral admin
  • Not for chronic use (PEG 3350 is preferred for chronic bc better safety).
  • Due to MOA may not be effective in patients with SC damage/paralysis from polio
2

Carbamide peroxide

  • one type of drop or cerumen removal method is not better than others
  • Cerumenolytics are the trtmt of choice for earwax impaction
  • Avoid ear candeling
  • Avoid confusion: similar products for the trtmt of swimmer’s ear contain isopropyl alcohol.
  • Available in 10% solution (Gly-Oxide) for oral rinse for mouth, gum, or dental irritation.
3

Dextromethorphan

  • Multiple products available, often in combo w/ other AI
  • Can cause varying degrees of euphoria, hallucinations (usually 100-400 mg), temporary psychosis, alterations in consciousness, and out-of-body experiences (usually >600 mg) = potential to abuse
  • Many pharmacies voluntarily only allow purchases by adults >18 y of age to reduce abuse
  • Not for persistent or chronic cough or for self-care in children <4 yo
  • serotonin syndrome w/ use of proserotonergic drugs.
4

Dimenhydrinate

  • Available OTC in many different products
  • some brand name products w/ same name contain meclizine instead of dimenhydrinate
  • Read product labeling carefully to confirm A
  • Take 30-60 min before, and continuously during activities producing nausea;
  • More effective as prevention than for treatment.
  • Parenteral formulation available for IM or IV admin by HCP if symptoms severe
5

Evening Primrose Oil

  • No difference in efficacy between placebo and evening primrose oil for eczema
  • AE more common in the evening primrose group (mild GI distress)
  • Used for breast pain, menstrual symptoms, diabetic nephropathy, and rheumatoid arthritis, despite the lack of evidence as to its efficacy
  • No evidence for use of this drug for any health condition.
6

Ferrous Sulfate

  • Decreasing dose = decrease GI distress
  • Sustained-release products may reduce AE bc lower iron absorption as iron is absorbed proximal to the jejunum.
  • Vitamin C enhances absorption, but avoid orange juice containing calcium.
  • Various prescription and OTC products, as well as other iron salts that contain different amounts of elemental iron, are available; confirm appropriate elemental iron for dosing purposes.
  • Contraindicated in patients with iron overload, such as those with hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusion-dependent anemias.
7

Flaxseed Oil

  • Plant source of Omega 3
  • Reduces LDL and TG; further study needed before flaxseed oil can be routinely recommended.
  • Contains fiber used for constipation
  • Being studied as a treatment for cancer, diabetes, dry skin, constipation, and various other conditions; no conclusive evidence of efficacy yet
8

Guaifenesin

  • Little evidence for effectiveness for acute coughs in adults or children
  • few AE; may be beneficial in some patients
  • Multiple combo products available, including guaifenesin/codeine syrup that can be dispensed OTC by pharmacists in a majority of states
  • Double-check for therapeutic duplication.
  • Labeling of various OTC products list varying minimum age limits for this product, many manufacturers voluntarily relabeled products to state “do not use in children <4 years of age,” but data exist for dosing down to 2 y of age.
9

Human Papilloma Virus

...

10

Lactobacillus

  • Data in children is limited but has been used safely in many trials (eg, for mild acute diarrhea associated with rotavirus infection).
  • Has been studied for radiation-induced diarrhea
  • Individual effects vary by strain
  • If one product fails to produce desired effect, alternative product with different mix of strains may still be beneficial
  • For antibiotic-assoc. diarrhea, take at least 2 h after the antibiotic dose to ensure survival, and continue 7-14 d after completion of antibiotic
  • Refrigeration requirements vary by product
  • If refrigeration required, can be stored at room temperature for up to 1 wk.
11

Loperamide

  • Treats symptoms, not cause, of diarrhea.
  • This drug, w/ or w/o antibiotic, is preferred trtmt of traveler’s diarrhea
  • Not to be used as primary therapy for bacterial enterocolitis, dysentery, pseudomembranous colitis associated with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, or acute ulcerative colitis (other primary therapy required).
  • High doses (up to 60 mg) have been used w/o med supervision for opioid withdrawal, leading to CNS depression and intestinal blockage, and should not be recommended for OTC use.
  • Special alert issued June 2016: cardiac events caused by use of higher than recommended doses, including through abuse or misuse of the product.
12

Measles, Mumps, & Rubella

...

13

Miconazole (vaginal)

  • All topical imidazole antifungals are considered equivalent to one another, but more effective than nystatin
  • Oral product available via prescription for oropharyngeal candidiasis.
14

Omega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters

  • Rx fish oil concentrate capsules (Lovaza) are more concentrated than OTC product = fewer capsules per dose
  • Trtmt of hypertriglyceridemia with this drug offers a better tolerability profile for patients as compared with other drugs, such as gemfibrozil and niacin
  • equivalent to gemfibrozil in efficacy
  • Different formulations contain variable amounts of EPA and DHA
  • Typically, a 1-g capsule contains between 200 and 950 mg of EPA and DHA
  • fishy aftertaste and fishy burps
  • Enteric-coated product, taking the product with meals or at bedtime, or refrigerating or freezing the product may improve palatability and reduce aftertaste
  • Beta-blockers, thiazides, and estrogens increase triglycerides, DC if possible
15

Pertussis

  • Use the same brand to complete series
  • Adacel not for children <11 yo
  • Daptacel not for children <6 wk or >6 yo of age
  • Avoid confusing Tdap and DTaP products
  • Vaccination with DTaP may need to be delayed in children with known or suspected neurological conditions until the condition is evaluated, treated, and stable.
  • Local reactions may be more frequent after the 4th or 5th dose of the series.
16

Phosphorated carbohydrate

...

17

Poliovirus

...

18

Polyethylene glycol

...

19

Rotavirus

...

20

Simethicone

...

21

St John's Wort

...

22

Tetanus

...

23

Undecylenic acid

...

24

Varicella

...

25

Zinc oxide

...