Political Science Exam One

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chapters 1-5, confederation articles, amendments.
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1

political efficiency

publics belief in its ability to influence government and politics

2

liberty

freedom from governmental control

3

equality

quality of states being equal

4

democracy

government by the people; the form in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system

5

constitutional

system of rule in which formal and effective limits are placed on governmental power

6

authoritarian

systems of rule in which government recognizes no formal power limits but may be restrained by the power of other social institutions.

7

totalitarian

Systems of rule in which the gov’t recognizes no formal limits on its power and seeks to absorb or eliminate other institutions that challenge it.

8

democratic

systems that permit citizens to play a big part of governmental process

9

oligarchic

governments in which small groups makes most of governing decisions

10

autocratic

government in which one individual rules.

11

shays rebellion

led by daniel shay in 1817 winter, and stopped foreclosure of farmers lands

12

3/5th compromise

slaves will count as 3/5th of a person.

13

establishment clause

the government may not impose religion on anyone

14

free exercise clause

congress shall make no law prohibiting the free exercise of religion.

15

supreme court

elected by the president. Created by the judicial branch, the final judge in all cases involving laws of Congress, and the highest law of all the Constitution.

16

judicial review

the power of the courts to declare actions of the legislative and executive branches null and void; or unconstitutional.

17

federal system

the national government shares power with lower levels of gov.

18

expressed powers

congress powers - Collect taxes and borrow money, Regulate commerce, Maintain an army and a navy, Declare war

19

reserved powers

the powers not delegated to the national government or prohibited to the states are “reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.”

20

forbidden powers

powers both national and state government cant have

21

concurrent powers

powers shared by both state and gov.

22

bill of rights

Concession by the Federalists to the Antifederalists. 10 amendments approved. ratified on december 15, 1971

23

selective incorporation

American courts have applied portions of the U.S. Bill of Rights to the states.

24

Jim Crow Laws

laws enacted by southern states following Reconstruction that discriminated against African Americans.

25

Procedural rights

a court hears and determines what happens in civil lawsuit, criminal or administrative proceedings.

26

mayflower compact symbols

general good, justice, deliberation.

27

article 1

the legislative branch: the US congress makes laws for America.

28

article 2

the executive branch: carryout of laws made by congress

29

article 3

the judicial branch: determines whether power belongs to the government or states.

30

article 4

“full faith and credit”: states have the power to make and carry out their own laws.

31

article 5

the amending process: new amendment can be added with 2/3rd house votes and 3/4th states.

32

amendment 1

freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly.

33

amendment 2

right to bear arms

34

amendment 4-8

rights of the criminally accused

35

amendment 10

reserved powers (state)

36

amendments 13-15

Reconstruction amendments - abolish slavery, citizenship, etc.

37

amendment 17

election of senators by popular vote

38

amendment 19

extended vote to women on august 18, 1920

39

fundamental orders of the constitution

created a government (public state, common wealth)`

40

the new jersey plan

compromise b/w anti-nationists and state equality nationalist. each state would receive one vote.

41

virginia plan

Establishes a real Nat’l gov’t. Representation in both houses based on population or taxation

42

great compromise

agreement between large and small states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.proposed a bicameral legislature, resulting in the current United States Senate and House of Representatives.

43

constitutional convention

to revise the Articles of Confederation. Met in Philadelphia in May 17, 1787

44

articles of confederation

Adopted in 1777, First U.S. written constitution. The Articles adopted a model of a confederation. Execution of laws was left to individual states. Ratified on march 1, 1781

45

US political culture

Widely shared set of beliefs and values concerning the relationship of citizens to their government. ex: liberty, equality, unity, diversity, etc.