Exam 1 Review

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1

Health & Disease : Homeostasis is ?

The maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment regardless of external changes.

2

Term: Biopsy

excision of very small amounts of living tissue

3

Disease Process : Diagnosis

Refers to the identification of a specific disease through evaluation of signs and symptoms, laboratory test or other tools.

4

Disease Process : Etiology

Concerns the causative factors in a particular disease.

5

Term : Idiopathic

The cause of a disease is unknown

6

Term : Iatrogenic

A treatment , procedure or an error may cause a disease

7

Characteristics of Disease : Pathogenesis

Refers to the development of the disease or the sequence of events involved in the tissue changes related to the specific disease process.

8

Characteristics of Disease : Acute disease

short-term illness, quickly develops, signs of high fever & severe pain.

9

Characteristics of Disease : Chronic Disease

milder condition, develops gradually, persists for a long time, usually causes permeant tissue damage.

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Clinical Manifestations : Subclinical

Pathological changes occur but the patient exhibits no obvious manifestations.

ex: kidney damage may progress to advanced stage of renal failure before symptoms are manifested.

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Clinical Manifestations : Latent / silent

The stage were no clinical signs are evident

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Clinical Manifestations : Incubation

The time between exposure to the microorganism & the onset of signs or symptoms

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Clinical Manifestations : Prodromal

The time in the early development of a disease when one is aware of a change in the body, but the signs are nonspecific

14

Clinical Manifestations : Manifestations

Are the clinical evidence or effects, the signs & symptoms of a disease.

15

Clinical Manifestations : Local

found at the site of the problem, ex. swelling or redness

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Clinical Manifestations : Systemic

they are general indicators of illness ex. fever

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Term : Lesion

A local change in tissue.

18

Cellular Adaptation : Atrophy

A decrease in the size of cells

19

Cellular Adaptation : Hypertrophy

An increase in the size of induvial cells

20

Cellular Adaptation : Hyperplasia

an increase # of cells, resulting in a enlarged tissue mass.

21

Cellular Adaptation : Metaplasia

When one mature cell type is replaced by a different mature cell type

22

Cellular Adaptation : Dysplasia

The cells vary in size and shape , large nuclei are present , rate of mitosis increased.

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Cellular Adaptation : Neoplasia

New growth, neoplasm = tumor

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Term : Angiogenesis

The development of new blood vessels

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Cellular Injury and Death : Apoptosis

programmed cell death

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Cellular Injury and Death : Necrosis

the death of one or more cells or a tissue or organ as a result of irreversible damage.

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Cellular Injury and Death : Ischemia

A decreases supply of oxygenated blood to tissue or organ due to circulatory obstruction

28

Ways of Cellular Injury and Death

Ischemia, physical agents, mechanical agents, chemical toxins, Microorganisms, Abnormal metabolic, Nutritional deficits, fluid imbalance ,

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Cellular Injury and Death : Hypoxia

reduced oxygen in the tissue

30

Cellular Injury and Death : Organs w/ high oxygen demand

Brain, heart, kidney

31

Term : Exogenous

chemical factors from environment

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Term : Endogenous

Chemicals factors from inside the body

33

Cellular Injury and Death : Microorganisms

living organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye, ex. bacteria & viruses

34

Microorganisms death from ?

Pyroptosis

35

Pyroptosis

"lysis" / dissolution of the cell, releasing destructive enzymes called lysosomal

36

Cellular Injury and Death : Inflammation

swelling, redness, pain

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Necrosis : Liquefaction

the process by which dead cells liquefy under the influence of certin cell enzymes.

38

Necrosis : Coagulative

occurs when cell proteins are altered or denatured

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Necrosis : Fat

occurs when fatty tissue is broken down into fatty acids in the presence of infection or certain enzymes.

40

Necrosis : Caseous

a thick yellowish substance forms TB

41

Necrosis : Infraction

a term applied to an area of dead cells resulting from lack of oxygen.

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Term: Gangrene

an area of necrotic tissue usually associated with lack or loss of blood supply by an invasion of bacteria.

43

Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Imbalance : Concept

  • Essential to homeostasis
  • metabolic reaction
  • transportation
  • facilitates the movement of body parts
44

Fluid Compartments : Intracellular

fluid inside the cells

45

Fluid Compartments : Extracellular

fluid outside the cell

46

Fluid Compartments: Intravascular fluid

blood

47

Movement of Water

maintain a constant level of body fluid

48

Water & Electrolytes are maintained through ?

Thirst mechanism in the hypothalamus

antidiuretic hormone

aldosterone / ANP & BNP

49

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide

a hormone synthesized & released by the myocardial cells in the atrium of the heart.

50

Osmosis

movement of water from low solute concentration (interstitial fluid) to high concentration (blood)

51

Filtration

movement of water & solutes from blood (high pressure) to Interstitial fluid (low pressure) area.

52

Diffusion

movement of solutes from high concentration to low

53

Active Transport

Movement of solute using carrier & energy from low concentration to high concentration

54

Fluid Excess

occurs in the extracellular compartments

55

Fluid Excess : Edema

excessive amount of fluid in the interstitial compartment. this causes swlling or enlargement of tissue.

56

Causes of Edema

  • higher BP
  • Albumin, loss of plasma proteins
  • excessive sodium
  • Obstruction of the lymphatic circulation
  • Increased capillary permeability
57

Effects of Edema

  • swelling, pale or red in color
  • pitting edema ,
  • increase in body weight
  • functional impairment
  • Pain
58

Fluid Deficit :

insufficient body fluid

59

Fluid Deficit : dehydration

serious for infants and elderly who lack significant fluid reserve's & conserve water quickly

60

Causes of dehydration

  • Vomiting , diarrhea
  • excessive sweating
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • low water intake
61

Effects of dehydration

Dry mucus membranes

decreased skin turgor

Low BP , decreasing mental function

62

How does the body compensate for fluid loss?

increasing thirst , increased heart rate , cutaneous blood vessels , Producing less urine

63

Electrolyte Imbalance : Hyponatremia

too little sodium. can cause excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, hormonal imbalance, excessive water intake

64

Effects of Hyponatremia

nerve conduction, muscle cramps, fatigue brain cells may swell causing confusion, headaches, weakness

65

Electrolyte Imbalance : Hypernatremia

too much sodium, causes edema , high BP , dry mouth / mucus

66

Electrolyte Imbalance : Hypokalemia

low potassium levels, can increase toxicity of heart medication,

67

Effects of Hypokalemia

Cardiac Dysrhythmias, Paresthesia (pins & needles), shallow respiration

68

Electrolyte Imbalance : Hyperkalemia

high potassium levels, causes renal failure, potassium sparing,

69

Effects of Hyperkalemia

Cardiac arrest , muscle weakness

70

Electrolyte Imbalance : Hypocalcemia

low calcium levels , increases pH , malabsorption , tetany

71

Electrolyte Imbalance : Hypercalcemia

high levels of calcium, depress neuromuscular activity, less water absorption, renal function decrease

72

Calcium Imbalance

  • stored in bone
  • excreted from urine & feces
  • controlled by the parathyroid hormone
  • provides structural strength , muscle contractions
73

Acid - Base Imbalance

  • essential to homeostasis
  • normal range is 7.35-7.45
  • increased hydrogen = Acidosis
  • decreased hydrogen = Alkalosis
  • compensated through kidney & lungs
74

Metabolic vs Respiratory /mnemonic

DIRECTION

SaME = MEtabolic

REverse = REspiratory