Exam 1 Review
Health & Disease : Homeostasis is ?
The maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment regardless of external changes.
excision of very small amounts of living tissue
Disease Process : Diagnosis
Refers to the identification of a specific disease through evaluation of signs and symptoms, laboratory test or other tools.
Disease Process : Etiology
Concerns the causative factors in a particular disease.
Term : Idiopathic
The cause of a disease is unknown
Term : Iatrogenic
A treatment , procedure or an error may cause a disease
Characteristics of Disease : Pathogenesis
Refers to the development of the disease or the sequence of events involved in the tissue changes related to the specific disease process.
Characteristics of Disease : Acute disease
short-term illness, quickly develops, signs of high fever & severe pain.
Characteristics of Disease : Chronic Disease
milder condition, develops gradually, persists for a long time, usually causes permeant tissue damage.
Clinical Manifestations : Subclinical
Pathological changes occur but the patient exhibits no obvious manifestations.
ex: kidney damage may progress to advanced stage of renal failure before symptoms are manifested.
Clinical Manifestations : Latent / silent
The stage were no clinical signs are evident
Clinical Manifestations : Incubation
The time between exposure to the microorganism & the onset of signs or symptoms
Clinical Manifestations : Prodromal
The time in the early development of a disease when one is aware of a change in the body, but the signs are nonspecific
Clinical Manifestations : Manifestations
Are the clinical evidence or effects, the signs & symptoms of a disease.
Clinical Manifestations : Local
found at the site of the problem, ex. swelling or redness
Clinical Manifestations : Systemic
they are general indicators of illness ex. fever
Term : Lesion
A local change in tissue.
Cellular Adaptation : Atrophy
A decrease in the size of cells
Cellular Adaptation : Hypertrophy
An increase in the size of induvial cells
Cellular Adaptation : Hyperplasia
an increase # of cells, resulting in a enlarged tissue mass.
Cellular Adaptation : Metaplasia
When one mature cell type is replaced by a different mature cell type
Cellular Adaptation : Dysplasia
The cells vary in size and shape , large nuclei are present , rate of mitosis increased.
Cellular Adaptation : Neoplasia
New growth, neoplasm = tumor
Term : Angiogenesis
The development of new blood vessels
Cellular Injury and Death : Apoptosis
programmed cell death
Cellular Injury and Death : Necrosis
the death of one or more cells or a tissue or organ as a result of irreversible damage.
Cellular Injury and Death : Ischemia
A decreases supply of oxygenated blood to tissue or organ due to circulatory obstruction
Ways of Cellular Injury and Death
Ischemia, physical agents, mechanical agents, chemical toxins, Microorganisms, Abnormal metabolic, Nutritional deficits, fluid imbalance ,
Cellular Injury and Death : Hypoxia
reduced oxygen in the tissue
Cellular Injury and Death : Organs w/ high oxygen demand
Brain, heart, kidney
Term : Exogenous
chemical factors from environment
Term : Endogenous
Chemicals factors from inside the body
Cellular Injury and Death : Microorganisms
living organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye, ex. bacteria & viruses
Microorganisms death from ?
"lysis" / dissolution of the cell, releasing destructive enzymes called lysosomal
Cellular Injury and Death : Inflammation
swelling, redness, pain
Necrosis : Liquefaction
the process by which dead cells liquefy under the influence of certin cell enzymes.
Necrosis : Coagulative
occurs when cell proteins are altered or denatured
Necrosis : Fat
occurs when fatty tissue is broken down into fatty acids in the presence of infection or certain enzymes.
Necrosis : Caseous
a thick yellowish substance forms TB
Necrosis : Infraction
a term applied to an area of dead cells resulting from lack of oxygen.
an area of necrotic tissue usually associated with lack or loss of blood supply by an invasion of bacteria.
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Imbalance : Concept
- Essential to homeostasis
- metabolic reaction
- facilitates the movement of body parts
Fluid Compartments : Intracellular
fluid inside the cells
Fluid Compartments : Extracellular
fluid outside the cell
Fluid Compartments: Intravascular fluid
Movement of Water
maintain a constant level of body fluid
Water & Electrolytes are maintained through ?
Thirst mechanism in the hypothalamus
aldosterone / ANP & BNP
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
a hormone synthesized & released by the myocardial cells in the atrium of the heart.
movement of water from low solute concentration (interstitial fluid) to high concentration (blood)
movement of water & solutes from blood (high pressure) to Interstitial fluid (low pressure) area.
movement of solutes from high concentration to low
Movement of solute using carrier & energy from low concentration to high concentration
occurs in the extracellular compartments
Fluid Excess : Edema
excessive amount of fluid in the interstitial compartment. this causes swlling or enlargement of tissue.
Causes of Edema
- higher BP
- Albumin, loss of plasma proteins
- excessive sodium
- Obstruction of the lymphatic circulation
- Increased capillary permeability
Effects of Edema
- swelling, pale or red in color
- pitting edema ,
- increase in body weight
- functional impairment
Fluid Deficit :
insufficient body fluid
Fluid Deficit : dehydration
serious for infants and elderly who lack significant fluid reserve's & conserve water quickly
Causes of dehydration
- Vomiting , diarrhea
- excessive sweating
- Diabetic ketoacidosis
- low water intake
Effects of dehydration
Dry mucus membranes
decreased skin turgor
Low BP , decreasing mental function
How does the body compensate for fluid loss?
increasing thirst , increased heart rate , cutaneous blood vessels , Producing less urine
Electrolyte Imbalance : Hyponatremia
too little sodium. can cause excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, hormonal imbalance, excessive water intake
Effects of Hyponatremia
nerve conduction, muscle cramps, fatigue brain cells may swell causing confusion, headaches, weakness
Electrolyte Imbalance : Hypernatremia
too much sodium, causes edema , high BP , dry mouth / mucus
Electrolyte Imbalance : Hypokalemia
low potassium levels, can increase toxicity of heart medication,
Effects of Hypokalemia
Cardiac Dysrhythmias, Paresthesia (pins & needles), shallow respiration
Electrolyte Imbalance : Hyperkalemia
high potassium levels, causes renal failure, potassium sparing,
Effects of Hyperkalemia
Cardiac arrest , muscle weakness
Electrolyte Imbalance : Hypocalcemia
low calcium levels , increases pH , malabsorption , tetany
Electrolyte Imbalance : Hypercalcemia
high levels of calcium, depress neuromuscular activity, less water absorption, renal function decrease
- stored in bone
- excreted from urine & feces
- controlled by the parathyroid hormone
- provides structural strength , muscle contractions
Acid - Base Imbalance
- essential to homeostasis
- normal range is 7.35-7.45
- increased hydrogen = Acidosis
- decreased hydrogen = Alkalosis
- compensated through kidney & lungs
Metabolic vs Respiratory /mnemonic
SaME = MEtabolic
REverse = REspiratory