Chapter 8 Head & Neck (p. 961-1011)

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1
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What is the wedge-shaped space deep to the masseter muscle, underlying ramus of the mandible?

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infratemporal fossa

2
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What is the space superior to the infratemporal fossa, above the zygomatic arch?

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temporal fossa

3
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What bones contribute to the boundaries of the temporal and infratemporal fossae? (5)

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  1. temporal bone
  2. zygomatic bone
  3. sphenoid bone
  4. maxilla
  5. mandible
4
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What crest that extends posteriorly from the zygomatic process, marking the posteroinferior border of the temporal fossa?

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supramastoid crest

5
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What groove marks the squamous part of the temporal bone on the medial wall of the temporal fossa?

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groove for the middle temporal artery

6
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What is the fissure between the tympanic and squamous parts of the temporal bone?

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tympanosquamous fissure

7
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What is the fissure between the petrous part of the temporal bone and the tympanic part?

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petrotympanic fissure

8
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What is the sharply angled boundary between the lateral and inferior surfaces of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone?

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infratemporal crest

9
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What is the spine projecting downward from the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, forming an attachment site for the sphenomandibular ligament?

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spine of the sphenoid

10
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Which part of the zygomatic bone extends anteromedially to articulate with the zygomatic process of the maxilla?

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maxillary process

11
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Which part of the zygomatic bone extends superiorly to articulate with the zygomatic process of the frontal bone?

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rontal process

12
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Which part of the zygomatic bone extends posteriorly to articulate with the zygomatic process of the temporal bone to complete the zygomatic arch?

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temporal process

13
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What is the quadrangular shaped part of the mandible with two surfaces medially and laterally and two processes superiorly?

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ramus

14
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What part of the mandible is formed by the intersection of the posterior and inferior borders of the ramus?

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angle

15
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What is the notch on the superior border of the ramus?

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mandibular notch

16
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What is the sharp continuation of the anterior border of the ramus onto the body of the mandible?

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oblique line

17
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Which process extends from the anterior part of the superior border of the ramus of the mandible?

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coronoid process

18
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Which process extends from the posterior part of the superior border of the ramus of the mandible?

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condylar process

19
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What are the two parts of the condylar process of the ramus of the mandible?

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  1. head of the mandible
  2. neck of the mandible
20
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What is the shallow depression on the on the anterior surface of the neck of the mandible, which forms the attachment for the lateral pterygoid muscle?

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pterygoid fovea

21
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What is the superior opening of the mandibular canal on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible?

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mandibular foramen

22
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What nerves passes through the mandibular foramen?

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inferior alveolar nerve

23

What is the triangular elevation immediately anterosuperior to the mandibular foramen, which forms the attachment for the sphenomandibular ligament?

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lingula

24
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What is the elongate groove that extends anteroinferiorly from the mandibular foramen?

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mylohyoid groove

25
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What nerves passes through the mylohyoid groove?

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nerve to the mylohyoid

26
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What are the synovial joints on each side of the mandible that allow opening and closing of the mouth?

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temporomandibular joints

27

How are the articular surfaces of temporomandibular joints different from other synovial joints?

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Instead of being covered by the typical hyaline cartilage, they are covered by fibrocartilage.

28

How are the joint cavity of temporomandibular joints different from other synovial joints?

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It is divded into an upper part and lower part by a fibrous articular disc.

29

What type of movments are allowed by the lower part of the temporomandibular joint?

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The hinge-like movements of depression and elevation of the mandible.

30

What type of movments are allowed by the upper part of the temporomandibular joint?

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The translocation of the mandible forward (protrusion) and backward (retraction).

31
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What part of the temporomandibular joint capsule lines all of the nonarticular surfaces?

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synovial membrane

32
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What part of the temporomandibular joint capsule encloses the entire joint complex?

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fibrous membrane

33
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What three extracapsular ligaments are associated with the temporomandibular joint?

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  1. lateral ligament
  2. sphenomandibular ligament
  3. stylomandibular ligament
34
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Which extracapsular ligament of the temporomandibular joint runs from the articular tubercle to the neck of the mandible?

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lateral ligament

35
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Which extracapsular ligament of the temporomandibular joint runs from the spine of the sphenoid bone to the lingula of the mandible?

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sphenomandibular ligament

36
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Which extracapsular ligament of the temporomandibular joint passes from the styloid process of the temporal bone to the angle of the mandible?

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stylomandibular ligament

37

What are the four basic movements of the mandible?

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  1. depression
  2. elevation
  3. protrusion
  4. retraction
38

What muscles are involved in depression of the mandible? (3)

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  1. digastric
  2. geniohyoid
  3. mylohyoid
39

What muscles are involved in elevation of the mandible? (3)

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  1. temporalis
  2. masseter
  3. medial pterygoid
40

What muscles are involved in depression of the mandible? (2)

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  1. lateral pterygoid
  2. medial pterygoid
41

What muscles are involved in depression of the mandible? (3)

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  1. geniohyoid
  2. digastric
  3. temporalis
42

What is the only muscle of the temporomandibular joint that is not innervated by the mandibular nerve [V3]?

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geniohyoid (innervated by C1)

43

What are the muscles of mastication? (4)

  1. masseter
  2. temporalis
  3. medial pterygoid
  4. lateral pterygoid
44
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What muscle overlies the ramus of the mandible, originating above at the zygomatic arch and inserts below at most of the lateral surface of the ramus?

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masseter

45

What is the innervation of the masseter muscle?

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masseteric nerve from the mandibular nerve [V3]

46

What is the narrow fan-shaped space that covers the lateral surface of the skull?

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temporal fossa

47

What is the tough, fan-shaped aponeurosis overlying the temporalis muscle?

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temporal fascia

48
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What is the a large, fan-shaped muscle that fills much of the temporal fossa?

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temporalis muscle

49

What is the innervation of the temporalis muscle?

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deep temporal nerves from the mandibular nerve [V3]

50

What is the wedge-shaped space inferior to the temporal fossa?

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infratemporal fossa

51

What forms the roof of the infratemporal fossa?

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The inferior surfaces of the greater wing of the sphenoid and the temporal bone.

52

What forms the lateral wall of the infratemporal fossa?

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The medial surface of the ramus of the mandible.

53

What forms the medial wall of the infratemporal fossa?

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The lateral plate of the pterygoid process anteriorly; the pharynx and muscles of the soft palate posteriorly.

54

What forms the anterior wall of the infratemporal fossa?

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The posterior surface of the maxilla.

55
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What is the quadrangular muscle that attaches to the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible?

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medial pterygoid

56
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What are the two heads of the medial pterygoid muscle?

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  1. deep head
  2. superficial head
57
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Which head of the medial pterygoid muscle originates from the lateral plate of the pterygoid process?

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deep head

58
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Which head of the medial pterygoid muscle originates from the tuberosity of the maxilla?

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superficial head

59

What is the innervation of the medial pterygoid muscle?

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nerve to the medial pterygoid from the mandibular nerve [V3]

60
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What is the thick triangular muscle that attaches to the pterygoid fovea of the neck of the mandible?

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lateral pterygoid

61
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What are the two heads of the lateral pterygoid muscle?

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  1. upper head
  2. lower head
62
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Which head of the lateral pterygoid muscle originates from the roof of the infratemporal fossa?

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upper head

63
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Which head of the lateral pterygoid muscle originates from the lateral plate of the pterygoid process?

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lower head

64

What is the innervation of the lateral pterygoid muscle?

nerve to the lateral pterygoid from the mandibular nerve [V3]

65

What is the largest of the three divisions of the trigeminal nerve [V]?

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mandibular nerve [V3]

66

How is the mandibular nerve [V3] functionally distinct from the ophthalmic [V1] and maxillary [V2] nerves?

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Unlike V1 and V2 nerves, which are purely sensory, the V3 nerve is both motor and sensory.

67

Where do all branches of the mandibular nerve [V3] originate?

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infratemporal fossa

68

What two branches does the mandibular nerve [V3] give off before dividing into anterior and posterior trunks?

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  1. meningeal branch
  2. nerve to the medial pterygoid
69

What are the branches of the anterior trunk of the the mandibular nerve [V3]? (4)

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  1. buccal nerve (S)
  2. masseteric nerve (M)
  3. deep temporal nerves (M)
  4. nerve to the lateral pterygoid (M)
70

What are the branches of the posterior trunk of the the mandibular nerve [V3]? (4)

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  1. auriculotemporal nerve (S)
  2. lingual nerve (S)
  3. inferior alveolar nerve (S)
  4. nerve to the mylohyoid (M)
71

Which branch of the mandibular nerve [V3] passes through the foramen spinosum to supply the dura mater and mastoid cells?

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meningeal branch

72

Which branch of the mandibular nerve [V3] supplies the medial pterygoid, tensor veli palatini, and tensor tympani muscles?

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nerve to the medial pterygoid

73

Which branch of the anterior trunk of the mandibular nerve [V3] supplies the oral mucosa and the buccal gingivae of the lower molars?

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buccal nerve

74

Which branch of the anterior trunk of the mandibular nerve [V3] supplies the masseter muscle?

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masseteric nerve

75

Which branch of the anterior trunk of the mandibular nerve [V3] supplies the temporalis muscle?

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deep temporal nerves

76

Which branch of the anterior trunk of the mandibular nerve [V3] supplies the lateral pterygoid muscle?

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nerve to the lateral pterygoid

77

Which branch of the posterior trunk of the mandibular nerve [V3] supplies the skin over the temple?

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auriculotemporal nerve

78

Which branch of the posterior trunk of the mandibular nerve [V3] supplies the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, oral mucosa on the floor of the oral cavity, and lingual gingivae associated with the lower teeth?

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lingual nerve

79

The lingual nerve carries general sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. What nerve carries special taste sensation from this area?

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facial nerve [VII]

80

What ganglion is associated with the lingual nerve as it passes on the lateral surface of the hyoglossus muscle?

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submandibular ganglion

81

Which branch of the posterior trunk of the mandibular nerve [V3] passes through the mandibular foramen to supply all of the lower teeth, gingivae, the mucosa and skin of the lower lip, and skin of the chin?

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inferior alveolar nerve

82

What branch is given off by the inferior alveolar nerve just before it enters the mandibular foramen?

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nerve to the mylohyoid

83

What are the two terminal branches of the inferior alveolar nerve?

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  1. incisive nerve
  2. mental nerve
84

Which of the terminal branches of the inferior alveolar nerve supplies the first premolar, incisor, and canine teeth, and related gingivae?

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incisive nerve

85

Which of the terminal branches of the inferior alveolar nerve exits the mandible through the mental foramen and supplies the lower lip and chin?

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mental nerve

86

Which two branches of two cranial nerves join branches of the mandibular nerve [V3] in the infratemporal fossa?

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  1. chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve [VII]
  2. lesser petrosal nerve of the glossopharyngeal nerve [IX]
87

What nerve carries taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and parasympathetic innervation to all salivary glands below the level of the oral fissure?

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chorda tympani

88

If a lesion of the lingual nerve causes loss of general sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, but taste is preserved, where is it most likely located?

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The injury must be proximal to where the chorda tympani joins the lingual nerve in the infratemporal fossa, thus inhibiting the functions of the lingual nerve while preserving the functions of the chorda tympani.

89

If a lesion of the lingual nerve causes loss of both general sensation and taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, where is it most likely located?

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The injury must be distal to where the chorda tympani joins the lingual nerve in the infratemporal fossa, thus inhibiting the functions of the both nerves.

90

What nerve is a branch of the tympanic plexus that carries parasympathetic fibers destined for the parotid gland?

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lesser petrosal nerve

91

What is the clinical significance of inferior alveolar nerve anesthesia?

Anesthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve is widely practiced by most dentists.

92

What is the major source of blood supply for the nasal cavity, the lateral wall and roof of the oral cavity, all teeth, and the dura mater in the cranial cavity?

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maxillary artery

93

What artery is the maxillary artery a branch of?

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external carotid artery

94

What are the branches of the first part of the maxillary artery (the part between the neck of the mandible and the sphenomandibular ligament)? (5)

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  1. middle meningeal artery
  2. inferior alveolar artery
  3. deep auricular artery
  4. anterior tympanic artery
  5. accessory meningeal artery
95

What are the branches of the second part of the maxillary artery (the part related to the lateral pterygoid muscle)? (4)

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  1. deep temporal branches
  2. masseteric artery
  3. buccal artery
  4. pterygoid branches
96

Which branch of the first part of the maxillary artery passes through the foramen spinosum to suppy the dura mater, bone, and bone marrow of the cranial cavity walls?

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middle meningeal artery

97

What is the clinical significance of middle meningeal artery injury?

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It can be can be damaged by lateral blows to the head, resulting in an extradural hematoma.

98

Which branch of the first part of the maxillary artery passes through mandibular foramen to supply all lower teeth, the buccal gingivae, chin, and lower lip?

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inferior alveolar artery

99

Which branches of the second part of the maxillary artery supply the temporalis muscles?

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deep temporal arteries

100

Which branches of the second part of the maxillary artery supply the pterygoid muscles?

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pterygoid arteries

101

Which branch of the second part of the maxillary artery passes through the mandibular notch to supply the masseter muscle?

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masseteric artery

102

Which branch of the second part of the maxillary artery supplies the skin, muscle, and oral mucosa of the cheek?

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buccal artery

103

What venous plexus is formed by veins draining regions supplied by branches of the maxillary artery?

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pterygoid plexus

104

What is the clinical significance of the emissary veins of the pterygoid plexus?

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These valveless veins connect the pterygoid plexus to the cavernous sinus, and thus represent a route by which infections can spread into the cranial cavity from structures drained by the pterygoid plexus (e.g. teeth).

105

What vein does the pterygoid plexus connect to posteriorly?

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retromandibular vein

106

What vein does the pterygoid plexus connect to anteriorly?

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facial vein

107

What is the teardrop-shaped space between bones of the lateral skull immediately posterior to the maxilla?

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pterygopalatine fossa

108

What bones contribute to the formation of the pterygopalatine fossa? (3)

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  1. palatine bone
  2. maxilla
  3. sphenoid bone
109
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What is the bony canal running horizontally through the root of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone?

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pterygoid canal

110
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What are the seven foramina and fissures of the pterygopalatine fossa?

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  1. foramen rotundum (middle cranial fossa)
  2. pterygoid canal (middle cranial fossa)
  3. palatovaginal canal (nasopharynx)
  4. palatine canal (oral cavity)
  5. sphenopalatine foramen (nasal cavity)
  6. pterygomaxillary fissure (infratemporal fossa)
  7. inferior orbital fissure (floor of the orbit)
111

Where does the maxillary nerve [V2] originate?

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trigeminal ganglion

112

Where does the maxillary nerve [V2] exits the middle cranial fossa to enters the pterygopalatine fossa?

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foramen rotundum

113

What three branches does the maxillary nerve [V2] give off in the pterygopalatine fossa?

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  1. zygomatic nerve
  2. posterior superior alveolar nerve
  3. ganglionic branches
114

What four branches of the the maxillary nerve [V2] leave the pterygopalatine ganglion?

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  1. orbital branches
  2. palatine branches
  3. nasal branches
  4. pharyngeal branches
115

Which branches of the maxillary nerve [V2] pass through the inferior orbital fissure to supply of the orbital wall and sphenoidal and ethmoidal sinuses?

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orbital branches

116

Which branch of the maxillary nerve [V2] passes through the greater palatine foramen to supply mucosa, gingiva, and glands of the hard palate?

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greater palatine nerve

117

What branches does greater palatine nerve give of in the palatine canal to supply the lateral nasal wall?

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posterior inferior nasal nerves

118

Which branch of the maxillary nerve [V2] passes through the lesser palatine foramen to supply the soft palate?

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lesser palatine nerve

119

Which branches of the maxillary nerve [V2] pass through the sphenopalatine foramena to supply the lateral and medial walls of the nasal cavity?

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nasal nerves

120

Which nasal nerve of the maxillary nerve [V2] passes through the incisive canal to supply mucosa, gingiva, and glands adjacent to the incisor teeth?

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nasopalatine nerve

121

Which branches of the maxillary nerve [V2] passes through the palatovaginal canal to supply the mucosa and glands of the nasopharynx?

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pharyngeal nerve

122

Which branch of the maxillary nerve [V2] passes through the inferior orbital fissure before dividing into two branches?

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zygomatic nerve

123

What are the two branches of the zygomatic nerve?

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  1. zygomaticotemporal branch
  2. zygomaticofacial branch
124

Which branch of the maxillary nerve [V2] passes through the pterygomaxillary fissure to supply the the molar teeth and adjacent buccal gingivae, and maxillary sinus?

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posterior superior alveolar nerve

125

What plexus does the posterior superior alveolar nerve join just deep to the mucosa of the maxillary sinus?

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superior dental plexus

126

Which is the is the anterior continuation of the maxillary nerve [V2] that passes through the inferior orbital fissure and the infra-orbital foramen inferior before dividing into three branches?

infra-orbital nerve

127

What two nerves does the infra-orbital nerve give off in the infra-orbital groove to supply the upper teeth?

  1. middle superior alveolar nerve
  2. anterior superior alveolar nerve
128

What are the three terminal branches of the infra-orbital nerve?

  1. nasal branches
  2. palpebral branches
  3. superior labial branches
129

Which of the terminal branches of the infra-orbital nerve supply skin over the lateral aspect of the external nose and part of the nasal septum?

nasal branches

130

Which of the terminal branches of the infra-orbital nerve supply skin of the lower eyelid?

palpebral branches

131

Which of the terminal branches of the infra-orbital nerve supply skin over the cheek and upper lip, and the related oral mucosa?

superior labial branches

132

What two nerves join in the middle cranial fossa to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal?

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  1. greater petrosal nerve
  2. deep petrosal nerve
133

Where does the greater petrosal nerve originate?

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From the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve [VII].

134

What nerve carries parasympathetic innervation to all glands above the oral fissure?

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greater petrosal nerve

135

Where does the deep petrosal nerve originate?

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It is formed by postganglionic sympathetic fibers of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion.

136

What is the largest of the four parasympathetic ganglia in the head, which is joined by the nerve of the pterygoid canal?

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pterygopalatine ganglion

137

What branch of the ophthalmic nerve [V1] carries parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation to the lacrimal gland?

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lacrimal nerve

138

What is the clinical significance of lesions affecting the parasympathetic fibers that leave the brain as part of the facial nerve [VII], which are carried to the lacrimal gland the lacrimal branch of the ophthalmic nerve [V1]?

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This results in “dry eye” and can eventually lead to loss of vision in the affected eye.

139

What are the branches of the third part of the maxillary artery (the part in the pterygopalatine fossa)? (6)

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  1. posterior superior alveolar artery
  2. infra-orbital artery
  3. greater palatine artery
  4. pharyngeal artery
  5. sphenopalatine artery
  6. artery of the pterygoid canal
140

Which branch of the third part of the maxillary artery passes through the pterygomaxillary fissure to supplies the molar and premolar teeth, adjacent gingiva, and the maxillary sinus?

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posterior superior alveolar artery

141

Which branch of the third part of the maxillary artery passes through the through the inferior orbital fissure and infra-orbital foramen to supply parts of the face?

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infra-orbital artery

142

Which branches of the infra-orbital artery supply the incisor and canine teeth and the maxillary sinus?

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anterior superior alveolar arteries

143

Which branch of the third part of the maxillary artery passes through the palatine canal to supply the hard palate?

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greater palatine artery

144

Which branch of the greater palatine artery supplies the soft palate?

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lesser palatine branch

145

Which branch of the third part of the maxillary artery passes through the palatovaginal canal to supply the posterior aspect of the roof of the nasal cavity, the sphenoidal sinus, and the pharyngotympanic tube?

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pharyngeal branch

146

What is the terminal branch of the maxillary artery, which passes through the sphenopalatine foramen?

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sphenopalatine artery

147

Which branch of the third part of the maxillary artery passes through the pterygoid canal and terminates in the mucosa of the nasopharynx?

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artery of the pterygoid canal

148

Were do veins that drain areas supplied by branches of the terminal part of the maxillary empty into?

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pterygoid plexus

149

What is the tube providing continuity from the head to the trunk?

neck

150

What are the four compartments of the neck?

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  1. visceral compartment
  2. vertebral compartment
  3. vascular compartments (2)
151

What are the boundaries of the anterior triangle of the neck?

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  1. the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid
  2. the inferior border of the mandible
  3. the midline of the neck
152

What are the boundaries of the posterior triangle of the neck?

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  1. the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid
  2. the anterior border of the trapezius
  3. the middle one-third of the clavicle
153

What thin sheet of muscle is contained in the superficial fascia in the neck?

platysma

154
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What are the four layers of deep cervical fascia in the neck?

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  1. investing layer
  2. prevertebral layer
  3. pretracheal layer
  4. carotid sheaths
155
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Which layer of deep cervical fascia completely surrounds the neck and encloses the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles?

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investing layer

156
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Which layer of deep cervical fascia surrounds the vertebral column and the muscles associated with it?

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prevertebral layer

157

What is the anterolateral extension of prevertebral fascia that surrounds the brachial plexus and subclavian artery as these structures pass into the axilla?

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axillary sheath

158
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Which layer of deep cervical fascia consists of a collection of fascias that surround the trachea, esophagus, and thyroid gland?

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pretracheal layer

159
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Which layer of deep cervical fascia surrounds the common carotid artery, the internal carotid artery, the internal jugular vein, and the vagus nerve?

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carotid sheath

160
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What are the three facial spaces between the fascial layers in the neck?

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  1. pretracheal space
  2. retropharyngeal space
  3. third space
161
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Which facial space is formed between the investing and pretracheal layers?

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pretracheal space

162
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Which facial space is formed between the buccopharyngeal and prevertebral layers?

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retropharyngeal space

163
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Which facial space is formed between the prevertebral layer and the bodies of the cervical vertebrae?

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third space

164

What is the clinical significance of the facial spaces between the fascial layers in the neck?

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They may provide a conduit for the spread of infections from the neck to the mediastinum.

165

What are the the primary venous channels for superficial venous drainage of the neck? (2)

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  1. external jugular veins
  2. anterior jugular veins
166

What two veins join to form the external jugular vein?

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  1. posterior auricular vein
  2. retromandibular vein
167

What two veins join to form the retromandibular vein?

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  1. superficial temporal vein
  2. maxillary vein
168

What veins do the external jugular veins drain into?

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subclavian veins

169

What are the tributaries of the external jugular vein? (3)

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  1. posterior external jugular vein
  2. transverse cervical veins
  3. suprascapular veins
170

What veins do the anterior jugular veins drain into?

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subclavian veins

171

What connects the right and left anterior jugular veins in the area of the suprasternal notch?

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jugular venous arch

172

What is a potential complication of "blind puncture" of the subclavian vein to achieve central venous access?

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The subclavian passes over the apex of the lung; misplacement of a needle may puncture the apical pleura, producing a pneumothorax.

173

The anterior triangle of the neck is further divided into four smaller triangles. What are they?

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  1. submandibular triangle
  2. submental triangle
  3. muscular triangle
  4. carotid triangle
174

What are the borders of the submandibular triangle of the anterior triangle of the neck?

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  1. the inferior border of the mandible
  2. the anterior belly of the digastric muscle
  3. the posterior belly of the digastric muscle
175

What are the borders of the submental triangle of the anterior triangle of the neck?

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  1. the hyoid bone
  2. the anterior belly of the digastric muscle
  3. the midline
176

What are the borders of the muscular triangle of the anterior triangle of the neck?

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  1. the hyoid bone
  2. the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle and the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle
  3. the midline
177

What are the borders of the carotid triangle of the anterior triangle of the neck?

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  1. the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle
  2. the posterior belly of the digastric muscle
  3. the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid
178

What are the suprahyoid muscles? (4)

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  1. stylohyoid
  2. digastric
  3. mylohyoid
  4. geniohyoid
179
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Which suprahyoid muscle arises from the base of the styloid process and passes anteroinferiorly to attach to the lateral area of the body of the hyoid bone?

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stylohyoid muscle

180

What is the innervation of the stylohyoid muscle?

facial nerve [VII]

181
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Which suprahyoid muscle has two bellies connected by a tendon, which attaches to the body of the hyoid bone?

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digastric muscle

182
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Which belly of the digastric muscle arises from the mastoid notch on the medial side of the mastoid process of the temporal bone?

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posterior belly

183
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Which belly of the digastric muscle arises from the digastric fossa on the lower inside of the mandible?

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anterior belly

184

What is the innervation of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle?

facial nerve [VII]

185

What is the innervation of the anterior belly of the digastric muscle?

mandibular nerve [V3]

186
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Which suprahyoid muscle originates from the mylohyoid line on the medial surface of the body of the mandible and inserts into the hyoid bone, forming the floor of the mouth?

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mylohyoid muscle

187

What is the innervation of the mylohyoid muscle?

mandibular nerve [V3]

188
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Which suprahyoid muscle arises from the inferior mental spine of the mandible and passes backward and downward to insert on the body of the hyoid bone?

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geniohyoid muscle

189

What is the innervation of the geniohyoid muscle?

C1 (carried along the hypoglossal nerve [XII])

190

Which two suprahyoid muscles are innervated by the facial nerve [VII]?

  1. stylohyoid
  2. digastric, posterior belly
191

Which two suprahyoid muscles are innervated by the mandibular nerve [V3]?

  1. mylohyoid
  2. digastric, anterior belly
192

What is the only suprahyoid muscle to be innervated by a cervical nerve?

geniohyoid (innervated by C1)

193

What are the infrahyoid muscles? (4)

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  1. omohyoid
  2. sternohyoid
  3. thyrohyoid
  4. sternothyroid
194

What is a common name for the infrahyoid muscles?

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“strap muscles"

195
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Which infrahyoid muscle originates on the posterior aspect of the sternoclavicular joint and adjacent manubrium and inserts onto the body of the hyoid bone?

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sternohyoid muscle

196

What is the innervation of the sternohyoid muscle?

C1 to C3 through the ansa cervicalis

197
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Which infrahyoid muscle consists of two bellies with an intermediate tendon in both the posterior and anterior triangles of the neck?

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omohyoid muscle

198
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What are the two bellies of the omohyoid muscle?

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  1. inferior belly
  2. superior belly
199
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Which belly of the omohyoid muscle originates on the superior border of the scapula?

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inferior belly

200
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Which belly of the omohyoid muscle originates at the intermediate tendon and ascends to attach to the body of the hyoid bone?

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superior belly

201

What is the innervation of the omohyoid muscle?

C1 to C3 through the ansa cervicalis

202
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Which infrahyoid muscle originates at the oblique line on the lamina of the thyroid cartilage and passes upward to insert into the greater horn and adjacent aspect of the body of the hyoid bone?

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thyrohyoid muscle

203

What is the innervation of the thyrohyoid muscle?

C1 (carried along the hypoglossal nerve [XII])

204
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Which infrahyoid muscle arises from the posterior surface of the manubrium of the sternum and passes upward to attach to the oblique line on the lamina of the thyroid cartilage?

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sternohyoid

205

What is the innervation of the thyrohyoid muscle?

C1 to C3 through the ansa cervicalis

206

What is the only infrahyoid muscle that is not innervated by C1 to C3 through the ansa cervicalis?

thyrohyoid (innervated by C1)

207

What arteries begin the carotid system of the neck?

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common carotid arteries

208

Where does the right common carotid artery originate?

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brachiocephalic trunk

209

Where does the left common carotid artery originate?

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arch of the aorta

210

Near the superior edge of the thyroid cartilage each common carotid artery divides into its two terminal branches. What are they?

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  1. external carotid artery
  2. internal carotid artery
211

What is the dilation at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery that contains receptors that monitor changes in blood pressure?

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carotid sinus

212

What is the innervation of the baroreceptors in the carotid sinus?

glossopharyngeal nerve [IX]

213

What is the accumulation of receptors at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery that detects changes in blood chemistry, primarily oxygen content?

carotid body

214

What is the innervation of the chemoreceptors in the carotid body? (2)

  1. glossopharyngeal nerve [IX]
  2. vagus nerve [X]
215

What are the eight branches of the external carotid arteries?

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  1. superior thyroid artery
  2. ascending pharyngeal artery
  3. lingual artery
  4. facial artery
  5. occipital artery
  6. posterior auricular artery
  7. superficial temporal artery
  8. maxillary artery
216

What are the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery?

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  1. superficial temporal artery
  2. maxillary artery
217

Which branch of the external carotid artery supplies the thyrohyoid muscle, internal structures of the larynx, sternocleidomastoid and cricothyroid muscles, and thyroid gland?

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superior thyroid artery

218

Which branch of the external carotid artery supplies the pharyngeal constrictors and stylopharyngeus muscle, palate, palatine tonsil, pharyngotympanic tube, meninges in posterior cranial fossa?

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ascending pharyngeal artery

219

Which branch of the external carotid artery supplies the muscles of the tongue, palatine tonsil, soft palate, epiglottis, floor of mouth, and sublingual gland?

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lingual artery

220

Which branch of the external carotid artery supplies all of the structures in the face from the inferior border of the mandible anterior to the masseter muscle to the medial corner of the eye?

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facial artery

221

Which branch of the external carotid artery supplies the sternocleidomastoid muscle, meninges in posterior cranial fossa, mastoid cells, deep muscles of the back, and posterior scalp?

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occipital artery

222

Which branch of the external carotid artery supplies the parotid gland, external ear and scalp posterior to ear, and middle and inner ear structures?

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posterior auricular artery

223

Which branch of the external carotid artery supplies the parotid gland and duct, masseter muscle, lateral face, anterior part of external ear, temporalis muscle, parietal and temporal fossae?

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superficial temporal artery

224

Which branch of the external carotid artery supplies the tympanic membrane, temporomandibular joint, dura mater, trigeminal ganglion, mylohyoid muscle, mandibular teeth, skin on chin, temporalis muscle, maxillary sinus, and upper teeth and gingivae?

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maxillary artery

225

What is the primary vein that collects blood from the skull, brain, and face?

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internal jugular vein

226

Which dural venous sinus does the internal jugular vein originate from?

sigmoid sinus

227

The internal jugular vein begins as a dilated continuation of the sigmoid sinus. What is this dilation called?

superior bulb of jugular vein

228

Where does the internal jugular vein exit the skull?

jugular foramen

229

What veins are formed by the internal jugular veins joining the subclavian veins?

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brachiocephalic veins

230

What are the tributaries of the internal jugular veins? (6)

  1. facial vein
  2. lingual vein
  3. pharyngeal vein
  4. occipital vein
  5. superior thyroid vein
  6. middle thyroid vein
231

What is the clinical significance of the jugular vein?

The jugular venous pulse enables assessment of venous pressure and waveform.

232

Which cranial nerves are associated with the anterior triangle of the neck? (5)

  1. facial [VII]
  2. glossopharyngeal [IX]
  3. vagus [X]
  4. accessory [XI]
  5. hypoglossal [XII]
233

Which branches of spinal nerves are associated with the anterior triangle of the neck? (2)

  1. transverse cervical nerve
  2. ansa cervicalis
234

Which cervical nerves does the transverse cervical nerve arise from?

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C2 and C3

235

Which cervical nerves does the ansa cervicalis arise from?

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C1 to C3

236

What are the two roots of the ansa cervicalis?

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  1. superior root
  2. inferior root
237

What elements of the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems are associated with the anterior triangle of the neck? (4)

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  1. esophagus
  2. trachea
  3. pharynx
  4. larynx
238

What two endocrine glands are positioned anteriorly in the neck?

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  1. thyroid glands
  2. parathyroid glands
239

Which endocrine gland consists of two lateral lobes joined by an isthmus?

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thyroid gland

240

What structure on the tongue indicates the site of origin of the thyroid gland?

foramen cecum

241

What structure marks the path of migration of the thyroid gland from the base of the tongue to its final location?

thyroglossal duct

242

What are the three potential sites of ectopic thyroid tissue?

  1. tongue (a lingual thyroid)
  2. anywhere along the path of migration
  3. an extra lobe (a pyramidal lobe)
243

What is the most frequent result of remnants of the thyroglossal duct?

thyroglossal duct cysts

244

What two major arteries supply the thyroid gland?

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  1. superior thyroid artery
  2. inferior thyroid artery
245

What artery is the superior thyroid artery a branch of?

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external carotid artery

246

What are the two branches of the superior thyroid artery?

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  1. anterior glandular branch
  2. posterior glandular branch
247

Which branch of the superior thyroid artery passes along the superior border of the thyroid gland and anastomoses with its twin from the opposite side?

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anterior glandular branch

248

Which branch of the superior thyroid artery passes to the posterior side of the gland and may anastomose with the inferior thyroid artery ?

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posterior glandular branch

249

What artery is the inferior thyroid artery a branch of?

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thyrocervical trunk

250

What are the two branches of the inferior thyroid artery?

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  1. inferior branch
  2. ascending branch
251

Which branch of the superior thyroid artery supplies the lower part of the thyroid gland and anastomoses with the posterior branch of the superior thyroid artery?

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inferior branch

252

Which branch of the superior thyroid artery supplies the parathyroid glands?

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ascending branch

253

What small artery occasionally arises from the brachiocephalic trunk or the arch of the aorta and to supply the thyroid gland?

thyroid ima artery

254

What three veins drain the thyroid gland?

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  1. superior thyroid vein
  2. middle thyroid vein
  3. inferior thyroid vein
255

What vein do the superior and middle thyroid veins drain into?

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internal jugular vein

256

What veins do the inferior thyroid veins drain into?

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brachiocephalic veins

257

What nerves are closely related to the thyroid gland?

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recurrent laryngeal nerves

258

What nerve are the recurrent laryngeal nerves branches of?

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vagus nerve [X]

259

What vessel does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve loop around?

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subclavian artery

260

What vessel does the left recurrent laryngeal nerve loop around?

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arch of the aorta

261

What are the two pairs of endocrine glands on the deep surface of the lateral lobes of the thyroid gland?

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parathyroid glands

262

Which pharyngeal pouch are the inferior parathyroid glands derived from?

third

263

Which pharyngeal pouch are the superior parathyroid glands derived from?

fourth

264

What is a thyroidectomy?

A common surgical procedure that involves excision of part or most of the thyroid gland.

265

What two structures are at risk for being inadvertently damaged during a thyroidectomy?

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  1. parathyroid glands
  2. recurrent laryngeal nerve
266

What is one of the commonest disorders of the thyroid gland, characterized by thyroid hypertrophy and colloid cyst formation?

multinodular goiter

267

What disease causes atrophy of the thyroid gland, leading to undersecretion of thyroxine?

myxedema