Merrill's Atlas of Radiographic Positioning and Procedures E-Book: Basic Radiographic Terms Flashcards


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1

The patients colon may be cleansed by one or any combination of the following:(3)

Limited

diet laxative

enema

2

Radiolucent

can be easily penetrated by x-rays

ex.air & cloth

3

Radiopaque

cannot be penetrated easily by x-ray

ex. bone & metal

4

the rhythmic action of the muscular tissue of the alimentary tract

peristalsis

5

Involuntary motion is caused by the following:

  • heart pulsation
  • chill
  • peristalsis
  • tremor
  • spasm
  • pain

6

Voluntary motion resulting from a lack of control is caused by the following:

  • nervousness
  • discomfort
  • excitability
  • mental illness
  • fear
  • age
  • breathing

7

What is the primary method of reducing involuntary motion or voluntary motion due to lack of control?

length of exposure time

less exposure time the better

8

designed to help with significantly varied tissue thickness and density within a body part

compensating filters

9

The simplest and most common of the compensating filter shapes

wedge

10

The distance from the anode focal spot inside the X-Ray tube to the IR

Source-to-image receptor distance(SID)

11

What are the most common filter materials

aluminum and high-density plastics

12

The distance between the focal spot of the radiography tube and skin of the patient

Source-to-skin distance(SSD)

13

The following primary factors must be taken into account when the correct foundation technique is being established for each unit:

  • Milliampere-seconds(mAs)
  • kVp
  • AECs
  • Source-to-image receptor distance(SID)
  • relative patient or part thickness
  • grid
  • CR/DR exposure indicators or other digital exposure value estimates
  • IR or collimated field dimension
  • electrical supply characteristics(phase, frequency)

14

The greater the SID, the _____ magnification and the _____ the spacial resolution.

less, greater

15

restriction of the radiation field

Collimation

16

What are the 2 reasons for collimation?

reduce the amount of exposure

reduce the amount of scatter radiation thus helping contrast resolution

17

All radiographs must include the patient and procedure information required by institutional policy. This information customarily includes:

  • Date
  • patients name or identification number
  • right or left marker
  • institution identity

18

Term applied to the science of the structure of the body

anatomy

19

the study of the functions of the body's organs

Physiology

20

The detailed study of the body of knowledge related to the bones of the body

Osthi ology

21

What are the 4 fundamental body planes?

  • Sagittal
  • Coronal
  • Horizontal
  • oblique

22

The 2 great cavities of the torso

Thoracic and abdominal cavity

23

What is in the thoracic cavity?

  • pleural membranes
  • lungs
  • trachea
  • esophagus
  • pericardium
  • heart and great vessels

24

What is in the abdominal cavity?

  • peritoneum
  • liver
  • gallbladder
  • pancreas
  • spleen
  • stomach
  • intestines
  • kidneys
  • ureters
  • major blood vessels

25

What is in the pelvic portion?

  • Rectum
  • urinary bladder
  • parts of the reproductive system

26

9 Abdominal Regions:

card image

27

4 major types of body habitus and their percentages:

  • sthenic-50%
  • hyposthenic-35%
  • Asthenic-10%
  • Hyperstenic-5%

28

More than 85% of the population either _______ or a ________ has a body habitus

sthenic or hyposthenic

29

How many bones are there in the body?

how many bones are there in the axial skeleton?

how many bones are there in that appendicular skeleton?

Total: 206

Axial skeleton: 80 bones

Appendicular skeleton: 126

30

Classification of bones:

  • Long
  • short
  • flat
  • irregular
  • sesamoid

31

Anterior (ventral)

Refers to forward or front part of body or forward part of an organ

32

Posterior (dorsal)

Refers to the back part of the body organs

33

Caudad

away from the head of the body

34

cephalad

towards the head of the body

35

inferior

refers to nearer the feet or situated below

36

superior

refers to nearer the head or situated above

37

Central

Refers to middle area or main part of an organ

38

peripheral

Refers to parts at or near the surface, edge, or outside of another body part

39

contralateral

refers to part or parts on the opposite side of the body

40

ipsilateral

refers to part or parts on the same side of the body

41

parietal

refers to the wall or lining of a body cavity

42

dorsum

refers to the top or anterior surface of the foot or to the back or posterior surface of the hand

43

palmer

Refers to the Palm of the hand

44

plantar

Refers to the sole of the foot

45

Supine position with the head tilted downward

trendelenburg

46

Supine position with the head higher than the feet

Fowler

47

The recumbent position with the patient lying on the left anterior side (semiprone) with left leg extended and right knee and thigh partially flexed

sims

48

Supine position with knees and hips flexed and thighs abducted and rotated externally supported by ankle or knee supports

Lithotomy

49

Indicates that the patient is lying down and that the central rate is horizontal in parallel with the floor

decubitus

50

Achieve by having a patient lean backwards while in the upright body position so that only the shoulders are in contact with the IR

lorodotic

51

Used to describe the body part as seen by the IR

view

52

circumduction

Circular movement of a limb

53

deviation

Turning away from the regular standard or course