Introduction to Radiologic and Imaging Sciences and Patient Care: Pharmacology Flashcards


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1

Analgesics

drugs that relieve pain without causing loss of consciousness

2

Anaphylaxis

Condition caused by serious hypersensitivity to a drug may include respiratory or circulatory collapse

3

Anemia

Subnormal concentration of erythrocytes or hemoglobin in the blood

4

Anethetics

Agents that reversibly depress neuronal function

5

angina pectoris

Serve constricting pain in the chest, often radiating to the shoulder and down the arm

6

Antagonist

Substance that tends to nullify the action of another drug

7

Anticholinergics

drugs that block the passage of impulses through the parasympathetic nerves

8

Arrhythmias

Variations from the normal rhythm of the heartbeat

9

Atherosclerosis

Condition in which thickening of the wall of blood vessel occurs

10

Bronchodilators

drugs that cause expansion of the lumina of the air passages of the lungs

11

Coagulation

process of blood clotting

12

Contraindications

Conditions that render the administration of some drugs

13

diabetes mellitus (DM)

Primarily a disorder of carbohydrates, protein, and fat metabolism

14

diabetic gastroparesis

Form of nerve damage that affects the stomach. Food doesn't move through the stomach in a normal way

15

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy

disorder of peripheral nervous system

16

Diuretics

Drugs of the peripheral nervous system

17

Drug

1. any substance that, when taken into a living organism, may modify one or more of its functions 2. substance used as medicine to aid in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of disease.

18

edema

Presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the tissue of the body

19

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Inflammation of the lower esophagus from regurgitation of acid gastric contents

20

generic name

drug name that is usually descriptive of its chemical structure but is not protected as is a trademark name given to the drug when it becomes commercially available.

21

Hematoma

Localized collection of blood in the tissue resulting from a break in the wall of the blood vessel

22

Hyperlipedmia

Elevations of plasma lipid concentration

23

Hypertension

persistently high arterial blood pressure

24

idiosyncratic reaction

Response to a drug that is not normative to its intended action or side effects

25

Inhalant

Breathable chemical vapor

26

Infiltration

diffusion of fluid into a tissue; often used interchangeably with extravasation

27

Laxatives

agents that promote evacuation of the bowel

28

Microorganisms

microscopic organisms such as bacteria or viruses

29

Opioids

Drugs, natural or synthetic, that have pain relief activity, example being morphine

30

Osteoporosis

Disease of bone that leads to an increased risk for fracture

31

Parenteral

not through the gastrointestinal tract but by injection

32

Parkinson's disease

Degenerative neurological disease of the brain that impairs motor skills, speech, and other functions

33

Peristalsis

the waves of contraction that propel contents through the gastrointestinal tract

34

pharmacist

person who is licensed to prepare and dispense drugs

35

Pharmokinetics

study of the metabolism and action of drugs with particular emphasis on the time required for absorption, duration of action, distribution in the body, and method of excretion

36

Pharmacology

Study of drugs concerned with the origin, nature, effects, and uses

37

physical dependence

state of adaptation exhibited by a withdrawal syndrome specific to a class of drugs and that may be produced by abrupt cessation

38

Schizophrenia

Chronic mental disorder characterized by periods of hallucinations and paranoia

39

shock

condition characterized by profound hypotension and reduced tissue perfusion

40

Side effect

consequence other than the one for which a drug is used

41

therapeutic

pertaining to the art of healing

42

Thromboembolism disorders

Conditions involving the partial or complete obstruction of a blood vessel

43

Tolerance

State of adaptation in response to drug exposure that results in a decrease of one or more of the drugs effects over time

44

vasoconstrictor

Drugs that cause constriction of the blood vessels

45

Vasodilators

Drugs that cause dilatation of the blood vessels

46

What does PDR stand for? What is it?

Physicians' Desk Reference, It's an annual publication that contains current product information including the accepted uses, side effects, contraindications, and doses for available drugs. Pages are color coded and list drugs by both their generic and brand names.

47

What are the three types of names for drugs?

Chemical, generic, and brand name

48

brand name

name given to a drug manufactured by a specific company

49

trade name

name used to indicate a specific generic drug manufactured by several different companies.

50

What does it mean for a drug to be classification by Action (or function), drug families

Drugs with similar chemical actions Ex: pain relievers-analgesics; high blood pressure meds- anti-hypertensives

51

Legal Classification of Drugs

prescription/non-prescription (OTC) - vitamins, herbals, dietary supplements

52

What are dosage forms?

Means by which drugs are delivered to the sites of action within in the body Ex Tablet, capsule, inhalant, suppository, solution, suspension, transdermal patches

53

What are the four types of pharmacokinetics processes?

Absorption Distribution Metabolism Excretion

54

Absorption

movement of a drug from its site of administration into the blood

55

Distribution

drug movement from the blood to various tissues and organs of the body

56

Metabolism

chemical alteration of various substances (liver main organ)

57

Excretion

movement of drugs out of the body

58

Drug Absorption

How it gets into the circulatory system in order to begin activity

59

Drug Distribution

absorption of drug into the body and its travel to the intended site of activity via circulatory system

60

Drug interaction

Behavior of a drug, in relationship to other drugs in the body's system

61

What are some factors that influence drug action?

Patient age Health status Time of day Emotional state Other drugs in the body Genetic variations Disease state of the body

62

What are the some drug reactions?

Allergic Idiosyncratic Iatrogenic Anaphylaxis

63

Allergic

Occur when the body's immunologic system is hypersensitive to the presence of a drug

64

Idiosyncratic

Abnormal response to a drug caused by individual genetic differences

65

Iatrogenic

produced by a physician (the unexpected results from a treatment prescribed by a physician)

66

What are the different types of sedation drugs? What do they do?

Minimal sedation (anxiolysis) Moderate sedation/analgesia (conscious sedation) Deep sedation/analgesia General anesthesia