Introduction to Radiologic and Imaging Sciences and Patient Care: Contrast Media and Introduction to Radiopharmaceuticals Flashcards


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1

acid group

Contains carbon double bonded to an oxygen, single bonded to another oxygen, and a negative charge at the pH of the body

2

amine group

Contains nitrogen bonded to two hydrogen atoms

3

Anaphylactoid

resembling an immune system response to foreign material (antigen)

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atomic numbers

Numbers of protons in the nuclei of the different elements

5

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

BUN test can reveal whether the urea nitrogen levels are higher than normal, suggesting that the kidneys or liver may not be working properly

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bond

interactions between electrons of atoms that hold the atoms together in a stable group

7

bronchospasm

Involuntary muscular contractions in bronchial tubes usually resulting from an immune system reaction

8

Compound

substance composed of two or more elements combined in definite ratios that give the substance specific properties

9

Contraindications

factors of a patients history or present status that indicate that a medical procedure should not be performed

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Creatinine

nitrogen-containing waste products of metabolism excreted by the kidney's filtration system; high blood plasma levels indicate poor filtration by the kidney

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dimer

Compound formed by bonding of two identical simpler molecules

12

Extravasation

leakage from a vessel into the tissue

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Flocculation

Formation of flaky masses resulting from precipitation or coming out of a suspension or solution

14

Histamine

molecular substance containing an amine group; causes bronchial constriction and a decrease in blood pressure

15

Hydroxyl

Common chemical group, part of the water molecule, containing one atom of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen; carries a negative charge (anion) when not a part of a molecule

16

Ionic

atom or molecule having a negative charge (anion) or positive charge (cation)

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Methyl groups

common biochemical groups containing one carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms

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Molecules

stable groups of bonded atoms having specific chemical properties

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Monomers

simple molecules of a compound of relatively low molecular weight

20

Osmolality

measurement of the number of particles that can crowd out water molecules, causes most adverse reactions

21

Osmosis

Movement of water from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through a semipermeable membrane

22

pH

relative acidity or basicity (alkalinity) of a solution

23

radiopharmaceutical

pharmaceutical compound that is attached to a radioisotope

24

shock

inadequate blood flow within the body with resulting loss of oxygen and therefore energy

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Solution

uniform mixture of two or more substances

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Suspension

nonuniform mixture of two or more substances

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Five Radiographic Densities

-Air (gas) -Fat -Water -Mineral -Metal

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Purpose of Contrast Study

To visualize anatomic structures that are not normally seen on a diagnostic medical image

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Contrast Media

Enhance subject contrast in anatomic areas where low subject contrast exists. Classified as negative or positive. Takes advantage of the photoelectric effect and high-atomic number elements

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Photoelectric Interaction

Photoelectric interactions result in the x-ray photon being totally absorbed and not striking the image receptor.

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Negative

Type contrast agent that decrease attenuation of the x-ray beam and produce areas of increased density on the radiograph. Radiolucent Composed of low-atomic number elements

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Positive

Type of contrast agent that increases attenuation of the x-ray beam and produce areas of decreased density on the radiograph. Radiopaque Composed of higher-atomic number elements

33

Specialty Contrast Agents

-ultrasound: Microbubbles -MR scanning: gadolinium; DTPA

34

Why is air not used more often as a contrast material?

Low Persistence

35

Popular contrast choices and atomic numbers for each.

Barium sulfate (atomic # 56) Air/gas (atomic # 53) Oil-based iodine contrast agents Water-soluble iodine contrast agents (Iodine average atomic # 8)

36

List what makes a perfect contrast material.

Very-high contrast visualization Extremely low toxicity to patient Persistence in patient anatomy until imaging is completed Low cost Minimal or no side effects No residual effects within patient

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Key Contrast Characteristics

- ability of agent to mix with body fluids -viscosity -ionic strength -persistence in the body -iodine content -osmolality -potential for toxicity

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When should barium NOT be used?

When a perforation is suspected.

39

Differentiate between ionic and nonionic contrast agents.

Ionic -Dissociates into two ions; Anion (negative)/Cation (positive) -High osmolality -Adverse reactions are most often associated with ionic Nonionic -Does not dissociate into two ions and less toxic at cellular level -More water soluble (hydrophilic) -Increased solubility in plasma -Low osmolality -Warmed to increase viscosity -Less likely to cause patient reaction and is more tolerable by patients -High contrast effect resulting from number of iodine atoms per molecule -Reduced injection volumes

40

makes dehydrated patients are vulnerable to hypovolemic shock.

Water-Soluble Ionic Contrast Agents

41

List the categories of patient reactions and list examples of each.

Mild -Nausea, Vomiting, Cough, Warm feeling, Headache, Dizziness, shaking, Itching, Sweats, Urticaria (hives) Moderate -Tachycardia, Bradycardia, Hypertension, Hypotension -Dyspnea, Bronchospasm, Wheezing, Laryngeal edema Severe -Convulsions: Profound hypotension, Cardiac arrhythmias -Unresponsiveness -Cardiac arrest

42

Should be discontinued for 48 hrs before and 48 hrs after the use of iodine contrast media.

Metformin (Glucophage)

43

Radiopharmaceuticals

Radioactive material chemically attached to a pharmaceutical that is metabolized in the body (attached to a radioisotope). Detected by gamma camera in nuclear department and are effective for cellular physiology assessment.

44

Important when handling Radiopharmaceuticals

Time is of the essence. -Radioactive half life Be aware of contaminations. Contaminations can produce image artifacts. Contaminations increase exposure unnecessarily to patients and personnel. Two types of contamination: -External -Internal

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Administered under the supervision of a...

licensed physician with proper qualifications

46

Extravasation

Leakage from a vessel into the tissue.