Introduction to Radiologic and Imaging Sciences and Patient Care: Overview of Cell Biology Flashcards


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1

amino acids

The structural units of proteins

2

Anaphase

The phase of mitosis during which the duplicate centromeres migrate in opposite directions along the mitotic spindle and carry the chromatids to opposite sides of the cell

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Carbohydrates

Compounds composed of only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. carbohydrates such as sugars and starches are involved in energy-releasing process and animals and plants also known as saccharides

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Cell division

The process whereby one cell divides to form two or more cells

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Cell membrane

The frail, semi-permeable, flexible structure encasing and surrounding the human cell. it functions as a barrier to protect cellular contents from the outside environment and controls the passage of water and other materials in and out of the cell

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Centrosomes

Structure located in the center of the cell near the nucleus that contains the centrioles

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Chromosomes

Tiny rod shaped bodies that contain genes

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Cytoplasm

The protoplasm that exits outside the cells nucleus

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Cytoplasmic organelles

Miniature cellular components present in the cytoplasm enable to cell to function

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Deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA)

A type of nucleic acid that carries the genetic information necessary for cellular replication and regulation of cellular activity needed to direct protein synthesis it is often referred to as the master chemical in a cell because it contains all the information that the cell needs to function

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Lipids

Water insoluble, organic macromolecules that consist only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. lipids store energy in the body for long periods also known as fats

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Endoplasmic reticulur

A vast irregular network of tubules and vesicles spreading and interconnecting in all directions throughout the cytoplasm that enables the cell to communicate with the extracellular environment and transfer food from one part of the cell to another

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Genes

Segments of DNA that serve as basic units of heredity

14

Human genome

The total amount of genetic material(DNA) contained within the centrosomes of a human being

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Inorganic compounds

Compounds that do not contain carbon the inorganic compounds found in the human body occur in nature independent of living things

16

Interphase

The period of cell growth that occurs before actual mitosis

17

Meiosis

The process of germ (genetic) cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in each daughter cell to half the number of chromosomes in the parent cell

18

Messenger RNA(mRNA)

The substance that directs the process for making proteins out of amino acids

19

Metaphase

The phase of cell division during which the mitotic spindle is completed. it is also the phase of cell division in which the chromosomes damage caused by radiation exposure can be evaluated.

20

Mitochondria

Large, double membranous, oval or bean-shaped structure containing highly organized enzymes in their inner membrane that supply energy for the cells because of this they are referred to as the powerhouse of the cell

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Mitosis(M)

The process of somatic cell division where in the parent cell divides to form two daughter cells identical to the parent cell

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Nucleic acids

Very large, complex macromolecules made up of nucleotides

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Nucleus

The center of the cell, spherical mass of protoplasm containing the genetic material (DNA) which is stored in its molecular structure

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Organic compounds

All compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

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Osmosis

When water tends to move across the cell surfaces or membranes into areas in which a high concentration of potassium ions is present

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Oxidation

Most simply the combining of substances with oxygen. the definition of oxidation however has been broadened to include reactions in which electrons are lost by an atom

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Prophase

The first phase of cell division during which the nucleus and chromosomes enlarge and the DNA begins to take structural form

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Protein

Amino acids linked in various patterns and combinations. Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and occasionally other elements such as sulfur. Proteins are the most elementary building blocks of the cell

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Protein synthesis

The making of new proteins

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Protoplasm

The chemical building material for all living things. Protoplasm consist of inorganic substances, such as water and mineral salts, and organic substances, including proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids.

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Ribonucleic acid(RNA)

Type of nucleic acid that carry genetic information from the DNA in the cell nucleus to the ribosome located in the cytoplasm

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Ribosomal RNA(rRNA)

Type of RNA that assist in linking the messenger RNA to the ribosome to facilitate protein synthesis

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Ribosomes

Very small, spherical cytoplasmic organelles that attach to the endoplasmic reticulum they are the assembly sites where mRNA and tRNA combine amino acids into proteins they are the cells "protein factories"

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Saccharides

Carbohydrates such as sugars and starches that are involved in energy releasing processes and animals and plants

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Telophase

The phase of mitosis during which cell division is completed with the formation of two new daughter cells each of which contains exactly the same genetic material as the parent cell

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Transfer RNA(tRNA)

Type of RNA that combines with individual amino acids from different areas of the cell and attaches them to the ribosomes